Genetic predisposition to type 1 and 2 diabetes

One of the causes of the disease is a genetic predisposition to diabetes. In addition, there are a number of exogenous factors that increase the risk of its manifestation.

Today, diabetes is a pathology that is not amenable to complete treatment.

Thus, a patient with an established diagnosis must comply with all the recommendations and instructions of physicians throughout their lives, since the disease cannot be completely cured.

What is the disease?

Diabetes mellitus is a disease that occurs as a result of endocrine disruption. During its development, there is a violation of all metabolic processes in the body.

The lack of insulin hormone production or its rejection by the body cells leads to a large accumulation of glucose in the blood. In addition, there is a malfunction of water metabolism, there is dehydration.

To date, there are two main types of pathological process:

  1. Diabetes mellitus type one. It develops as a result of non-production (or production in insufficient quantities) of insulin by the pancreas. This type of pathology is considered insulin-dependent. People who suffer from this form of diabetes depend on constant hormone injections throughout their lives.
  2. Type 2 diabetes is an insulin-independent form of pathology. It arises as a result of the fact that the cells of the body no longer perceive insulin produced by the pancreas. Thus, there is a gradual accumulation of glucose in the blood.

In more rare cases, doctors can diagnose another form of pathology, which is gestational diabetes.

Depending on the form of pathology, the causes of its development may differ. Moreover, there are always factors that generalize this disease.

A significant role is played by the genetic nature of diabetes and its genetic predisposition.

The influence of the hereditary factor on the manifestation of pathology

Predisposition to diabetes can occur if there is a hereditary factor. In this case, a major role is played by the form of the manifestation of the disease.

The genetics of type 1 diabetes should manifest from both parents. Statistics say that the propensity to insulin-dependent form of the disease from the mother is manifested only about three percent of children born. At the same time, on the part of the father, heredity to type 1 diabetes mellitus slightly increases and reaches ten percent. It happens that pathology can develop on the part of both parents. In this case, the child has an increased risk for type 1 diabetes, which can reach seventy percent.

Insulin-independent type of disease is characterized by a higher level of influence of the hereditary factor. This is due to the fact that a person has a genetic predisposition to diabetes. According to medical statistics, the risk that a diabetes gene will manifest in a child, if one of the parents is a carrier of the pathology, is approximately 80%. At the same time, heredity to type 2 diabetes increases to almost one hundred percent, if the disease has affected both the mother and the father.

In the presence of diabetes mellitus in one of the parents, the genetic aspects of diabetes mellitus should be given special attention when planning motherhood.

Thus, gene therapy should be aimed at eliminating increased risks for children who have at least one parent has a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. To date, there is no such technique, which would include the treatment of hereditary predisposition.

At the same time, you can adhere to special measures and medical recommendations that will reduce the risk if he has a predisposition to diabetes.

What other risk factors exist?

Exogenous causes can also predispose to the manifestation of diabetes.

It should be borne in mind that in the presence of a hereditary factor, the diabetic risk increases several times.

Obesity is the second cause of pathology, especially type 2 diabetes. It is necessary to carefully monitor their weight to those categories of people who have an increased level of fat deposits in the waist and abdomen. In this case, it is necessary to introduce full control over the daily diet and gradually reduce weight to normal levels.

The main factors that contribute to the development of the disease are as follows:

  1. Overweight and obesity.
  2. Strong stress and negative emotional turmoil.
  3. Maintain an inactive lifestyle, lack of physical activity.
  4. Previously transferred diseases of an infectious nature.
  5. The manifestation of hypertension, against which arteriosclerosis is manifested, since the affected vessels cannot fully provide all organs with normal blood supply, the pancreas suffers most, and that causes diabetes.
  6. Acceptance of certain groups of drugs. Especially dangerous are drugs from the discharge of thiazides, certain types of hormones and diuretics, antitumor drugs. Therefore, it is important not to self-medicate and take any drugs only on prescription. Otherwise, it turns out that the patient treats one disease, and as a result will get diabetes.
  7. The presence of gynecological pathologies in women. Most often, diabetes can occur as a result of such diseases as polycystic ovaries, preeclampsia during a child's pregnancy. In addition, if the girl gave birth to a baby weighing more than four kilograms, this may represent a risk to the development of pathology.

Only properly selected diet therapy for diabetes and good nutrition will reduce the risk of developing the disease. A special role must be attributed to daily physical exertion, which will help to expend the excess energy obtained from food, as well as have a positive effect on the normalization of blood sugar.

Autoimmune diseases can also be the cause of diabetes mellitus of the first type, these include thyroiditis and insufficiency of corticosteroid hormones in a chronic form.

Measures to reduce the likelihood of developing the disease?

An excellent prophylactic agent in the presence of a hereditary factor can be physical activity. A person chooses what he likes - daily walks in the fresh air, swimming, running or exercising in the gym.

A great helper can be yoga, which not only improves physical condition, but also contributes to emotional balance. In addition, such measures will get rid of excess fat accumulations.

Unfortunately, it is impossible to eliminate the hereditary factor that can cause the onset of diabetes. That is why it is necessary to neutralize the other reasons listed above:

  • avoid stress and not be nervous;
  • follow your diet and exercise regularly;
  • carefully select drugs for the treatment of other diseases;
  • constantly strengthen the immune system in order to avoid the manifestation of the disease of an infectious nature;
  • timely undergo the necessary medical research.

With regard to nutrition, it is necessary to exclude sugar and sugary foods, monitor the quantity and quality of food consumed. Easily digestible carbohydrates and fast food should not be abused.

In addition, a number of special medical tests can be conducted to determine the presence and possibility of the development of the disease. This is, first of all, an analysis of the presence of antagonistic cells to the beta cells of the pancreas.

You should definitely ask your doctor how to prepare for blood donation for sugar and for genetic predisposition. In the normal state of the body, the results of the study should indicate their absence. Modern medicine also allows you to identify such antibodies in laboratories in the presence of special test systems. To do this, a person needs to donate venous blood.

In the video in this article, the doctor will tell you whether diabetes is inherited.

Watch the video: Diabetes Type 1 and Type 2, Animation. (November 2019).