Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus occurs in children and young people. It is associated with the inability of pancreatic cells to produce the hormone insulin. If you find symptoms of type 1 diabetes, it is important to seek medical attention on time. Endocrinologist, conducting in-depth examinations of the state of carbohydrate metabolism in the body, will help to establish control over the disease. In the arsenal of specialists there are drugs, measuring devices. Developed diet and exercise systems, with which the patient can get closer to normal functioning.
What are the consequences of ignoring the symptoms
The insidiousness of diabetes lies in the fact that for several years there may be no obvious symptoms of endocrine disease. At the same time, destructive (destructive) processes in the body do not stop due to the failure of carbohydrate and other types of metabolism (fat, protein). Violations of cell tolerance to glucose are detected during examination for skin diseases, teeth, urinary system, during medical examination. Or, on the contrary, events in the body develop so rapidly that a diagnosis is made in a hospital to a patient who is already in a coma.
Experts distinguish several types of coma. Up to 30% of cases of newly diagnosed diabetes were found in patients admitted to medical institutions with ketoacidosis. Ketoacidemic coma appears with an increased level of blood glucose for a long time. In the body, the concentration of pancreatic hormone, insulin, decreases sharply. Ketone bodies (acetone) accumulate.
In case of violation of the diet (long fasting) or overdose of insulin, administered from the outside, the blood sugar level is significantly reduced (less than 3.3 mmol / l). A hypoglycemic coma develops. The patient may, for a certain period, be unconscious. Coma is a terrible outcome of ignoring the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. Bringing to her is extremely dangerous for life.
The manifestation of the symptomatic picture
Patients with endocrinological disease complain of:
- excessive thirst (polydipsia) - per day up to 10 liters;
- increased appetite (polyphagia);
- frequent urination, especially at night (polyuria) - up to 10 l per day.
Three symptoms of hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) are considered the most important - indicative. They are also called classic.
Complete the picture:
- weight loss (of varying degrees, usually dramatic);
- the appearance of a tendency to the development of infections (periodontal disease, furunculosis), fungal diseases (nails, external genital organs);
- due to dry mouth, dental problems arise (bleeding gums, loosening of teeth, intensive formation of plaque, stone);
- poorly healing skin lesions (wounds, scratches);
- pain in the region of the heart and calf muscles.
The main signs of hyperglycemia
Compound a patient with diabetes:
- attention disorders, memory;
- general growing weakness in the whole body;
- noticeable decrease in working capacity.
High blood sugar affects sexual desire. Men note the weakening of potency, women - libido.
Causes and symptoms of the development of symptoms
“Passing” is the literal translation of the diabetes disease known since ancient times. With a lack or absence of insulin in the body, the cells starve, which leads to weight loss and extinction.
The vital activity of the nervous tissue (brain, neurons) does not depend on the hormone of the pancreas. Despite the presence or absence of insulin, their cells independently take glucose from the blood. When hyperglycemia sugar in excess amounts into the nervous tissue. The patient feels symptoms of fatigue, heaviness in the head, fatigue.
No insulin is needed for glucose to penetrate into the lens of the eyeball. With high sugar, the patient becomes cloudy in the eyes, there is a haze. Blood vessels are composed of insulin-independent tissues. Excess sugar accumulates in the blood cells, in the inner lining of the veins and capillaries. Gas exchange with the participation of oxygen and carbon dioxide depends on erythrocytes. So the nutrition of the connective tissue is disturbed.
Polyphagia occurs due to the enhanced process of cleavage of proteins and fats. There is a paradoxical phenomenon - the weight loss of the patient against the backdrop of passionate appetite. In severe diabetes, the desire to eat can disappear altogether, until a complete aversion to food.
Polydipsia is accompanied by the loss of body fluids and salts. Urine with polyuria is light or colorless. Sugar is excreted through the kidneys, so the body is trying to get rid of unnecessary glucose, which has a destructive power.
The negative impact of diabetes on the kidneys is dangerous for the patient’s health and life.
Causes of type 1 diabetes
Predisposition to the onset of insulin-dependent forms:
- Diseases such as obesity, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension can become pathological precursors of type 1 diabetes.
- Chronic metabolic disease is inherited. People who have one (or both) parents or close blood relatives have a predisposition to the disease.
- Diabetes mellitus is often diagnosed in people who have suffered a stroke, severe stress (prolonged nervous strain), inflammation occurring with high fever, and exposure to toxic substances.
When symptom detection is most likely
First, most adolescents are at risk because of a hormonal imbalance during puberty. The exception is that the disease can occur with bouts of hypoglycemia - a sharp decrease in the level of glucose in the blood.
Characteristic symptoms with low sugar:
- hand tremor (marked tremor);
- dizziness, vasospasm;
- heart palpitations;
- numbness (lips, tongue, chin).
Symptoms of hypoglycemia
Signs of hunger and general weakness are often confused with hyperglycemia, a condition with high rates. If, with elevated sugar, the patient has some time to go to the endocrinologist, then with the hypoglycemic condition the count goes on for minutes. In humans, there is confusion. Symptoms of excitement are replaced by drowsiness and apathy, the pre-comatose stage begins.
Secondly, for the occurrence of type 1 diabetes mellitus, medical specialists note the seasonal manifestation. In the autumn and winter-spring periods there is a greater number of diagnosed cases. During temperature fluctuations, wet weather increases the likelihood of infection of the body with viral diseases (epidemic parotitis, rubella, measles).
Thirdly, people with a predisposition to type 1 diabetes should take advantage of a diversion from minor vaccinations. There are many cases when the endocrine disease develops immediately after vaccination.
Control blood sugar measurement can be performed at home using a glucometer
At the first suspicion of metabolic disorders occurring in the body, you must consult a doctor. The survey includes the following activities (the normal result is shown in parentheses):
- fasting blood test (not higher than 6.1 mmol / l);
- plasma analysis (7.0 mmol / l);
- the indicator of the share of glycated hemoglobin (up to 6.2%);
- profile with glucose (up to 7.8 mmol / l, blood sampling within 2 hours after ingestion of carbohydrate, in the amount of 75 g);
- urine tests for acetone and glucose (negative).
In diabetes, the status of the patient is special. He is an active and immediate executor of medical recommendations. Endocrinologists attach great importance to teaching the patient the means of adjusting and tracking blood sugar levels. Acquaintance with the basics of therapy takes place in the "diabetes schools". Hyperglycemia is the main mechanism for the development of acute and chronic complications of a terrible disease. From the patient depends on how the adjustment of carbohydrate metabolism, and, accordingly, the quality of life.