Diabetes mellitus is a disease that cannot be completely eliminated. Therefore, it has an impact on human life. Catering, restrictions on physical exertion, wakefulness and sleep, taking sugar-lowering pills or insulin shots - all this disciplines a person, makes you think over your daily routine in advance.
At first it may seem too complicated. But if you follow medical clinical guidelines in case of diabetes, you can eat and eat differently, play sports and feel great.
How to organize food?
The number of meals for a diabetic is 5-6 times, in small portions. It is important that the caloric content of food is small, and the glycemic index is medium or small.
This is necessary so that a person does not gain excess body weight and can avoid significant drops in blood glucose.
In addition, small portions of food can reduce the load on the digestive tract. Overload the stomach and intestines diabetic is not needed. American experts quite rightly try to avoid the word "diet", replacing it with a "nutrition plan."
This is perfectly correct, since the term "diet" implies something temporary. Compiling the optimal menu for the patient, the endocrinologist takes into account his dietary preferences, age, body weight, and metabolic features.
A balanced diet with reduced calorie content is suitable for one patient, a low-carb diet for others, a low-fat diet for the third. The better the diet is for a particular person, the less the risk of dietary errors and breakdowns.
Here are the basic principles of nutrition planning:
- Breakfast must include products with slow carbohydrates. It is necessary that the body is saturated with energy for the whole day ahead;
- maximum interval between meals - 3 hours;
- if there is a strong hunger, you need to measure the glucose level and eat something useful (for example, eat an apple or a few nuts). If the device shows low sugar, you should eat a dish containing fast carbohydrates;
- it is better for diabetic meat to eat not with porridge, but with a side dish of vegetables, since it is so much better absorbed;
- you can not go to bed with a feeling of hunger. One glass of unsweetened yogurt or low-fat yogurt at night will help get rid of this feeling.
DietThe initial adjustment of the diet is needed regardless of what type of diabetes you have.
The diet of people with insulin-dependent diabetes is somewhat less stringent.
The patient can calculate the insulin dose depending on what he plans to eat. However, all diabetics should avoid food with a significant carbohydrate load. Differences in glucose levels caused by such disorders increase the risk of complications.
The basis of the diabetic diet is vegetables. First of all, because they contribute to the acceleration of metabolism. In diabetes, metabolic processes slow down, so you need to eat vegetables from 3 to 4 times a day. In this case, the body receives the entire necessary set of vitamins, minerals and trace elements.
Vegetables and dishes from them improve digestion, minimizing the risk of constipation and related intoxication. Fruits are also helpful in this regard, but attention must be paid to the glycemic index. It should not be too tall.
The focus in the diet is desirable to do on fresh vegetables.
Fish and meat should be chosen for the preparation of low-fat species. Cooking them best in the oven with a small amount of oil, boiled or steamed. Fish should be in the diet about 2 times a week, meat - every day.
Suitable varieties: chicken or turkey (without skin), rabbit meat. The most useful diabetic fish species are hake, tilapia and pollock.. They are quite tasty, rich in nutrients.
It is better to refrain from eating fatty beef, pork, duck meat, goose and fatty fish because the dishes from these products increase the concentration of "bad" cholesterol and put pressure on the pancreas.
The most useful types of cereals are buckwheat, pea, wheat and millet.
The glycemic index of these products is at an average level, they contain a large amount of minerals and vitamins. But the polished rice and semolina from the diet should be excluded. Their calories are high and there are few nutrients.
Blood glucose control
This is one of the most important moments in the treatment of diabetes and in the prevention of complications. With regular use of the meter, hyper- or hypoglycemia can be recognized to take adequate measures.
The sooner a painful condition is detected, the more effective medical interventions are and the greater the chance of preserving the health of the patient.
In order for the instrument to show accurate values, it is necessary to periodically calibrate it and carry out control measurements. You can not use expired test strips, because the result will be far from the truth.
Patients with type 1 diabetes must comply with the mode of insulin injections.
In this form of the disease, it is impossible to do without injections, since insulin secretion is not enough. No rational diet will not help the patient if he randomly makes injections or completely neglects them.
It is important that a diabetic know how to calculate the dosage of the hormone administered, depending on what foods he is going to eat. Also, the patient needs knowledge of how the effect differs from short and prolonged insulin.
A special feature of type 2 diabetes is that insulin secretion is normal, and, if it is reduced, it is insignificant. In this case, the patient does not need hormone injections.
The main thing with type 2 diabetes is proper nutrition and physical education.
If this is not enough to maintain the level of glucose in the normal, the patient is prescribed hypoglycemic tablets. Only a specialist can pick up medicines.
Attempts of self-medication and uncontrolled medication will only aggravate the painful condition.
Diabetes in pregnant women
For pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, the need for insulin during different periods of pregnancy is different. It is possible that a woman will be able to do without injections for a while.
Adjust the dosage of injections and pick up the medication can only be a doctor.
It will also require a change in diet, since during the period of gestation, the need for nutrients increases. A separate category is gestational diabetes that develops during pregnancy. In this case, insulin is not prescribed, and the normal glucose level is maintained using diet.
Diabetic foot is one of the complications of diabetes. Its main feature is a change in the structure of the tissues of the legs. The first harbingers of the syndrome are tingling in the legs, discoloration of the skin, partial loss of sensation.
If no action has been taken, the disease progresses. On the legs appear weeping trophic ulcers, healing with great difficulty. The accession of the infection can result in the development of gangrene, until the death of the patient.
For the prevention of diabetic foot are.
- foot hygiene;
- daily self-massage to normalize blood circulation;
- regular inspection of the legs for minor abrasions and injuries;
- wearing comfortable shoes without a heel;
- Regular moistening of the skin of the feet with special lotions or creams to prevent drying.
An endocrinologist at a consultation evaluates the condition of the skin of the legs and, if necessary, prescribes drugs that normalize the blood supply to the tissues.
Complications on the kidneys and eyes: how to prevent them
Another complication of diabetes is diabetic nephropathy. With a high concentration of glucose, the viscosity of the blood rises, and its filtration by the kidneys becomes difficult.
If these phenomena are accompanied by hypertension, the risk of developing renal failure is high. In this case, the patient will need an “artificial kidney” apparatus to maintain life.
To avoid complications, you must:
- keep sugar at target level, constantly monitor glucose;
- reduce the amount of salt consumed. This will avoid swelling and maintain blood pressure in normal conditions;
- avoid high levels of “bad” cholesterol in the blood;
- completely stop smoking and alcoholic beverages.
These activities are a good prevention of heart disease and blood vessels.
Heart attacks and strokes in diabetics are much more difficult and have dangerous consequences. Frequent and complications associated with the eyes. Changes in the retina on the background of diabetes leads to decreased vision, even blindness. Retinopathy cannot be avoided, but its progression can be slowed down.
About methods of preventing diabetes in the video:
Diabetes is a disease that completely changes a person’s life. However, compliance with the recommendations of doctors and control of well-being allow you to learn how to live with this pathology. With compensated diabetes, the patient's quality of life and well-being are good, and the probability of complications is minimal.