Types and types

How to recognize prediabetes in advance - symptoms and signs of pathology

Prediabetes is a pathological condition, when an increased concentration of glucose is determined in the blood due to the fact that the pancreatic gland cannot synthesize insulin in the required amounts. The disease can occur in both adults and pediatric patients. Doctors emphasize that prediabetes is a border process between the normal functioning of the body and the disease, the name of which is diabetes.

Unlike diabetes, prediabetes is a treatable condition. In order to prevent its transformation into persistent hyperglycemia, a person needs to pay more attention to his health, change the nature of nutrition, increase physical exertion, and actively struggle with obesity.

But if these pathological changes on the part of the endocrine sphere are left without proper attention, sooner or later, prediabetes will lead to the development of type 2 diabetes.

general characteristics

With prediabetes, the person in the body has problems with glucose tolerance. That is, as a result of the fact that the sugar that has entered the blood is poorly absorbed, its concentration begins to increase. With such disorders, patients are diagnosed with elevated fasting sugar levels, which range from 5.5 to 6.9 mmol / l.

The main criteria for pre-diabetes are as follows:

  • fasting blood glucose - 5.5-6.99 mmol / l;
  • carbohydrate level 2 hours after meals - 7.9-11.0 mmol / l;
  • the glycated hemoglobin index is 5.8-6.4 mmol / l.

There are people with obesity, women and men over the age of 50, women with diagnosed polycystic ovaries and gestational diabetes in history, as well as patients with increased cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood group. .

Disruption of carbohydrate metabolism contributes to a number of factors, including:

  • periodic or persistent increase in blood pressure;
  • chronic pathologies of internal organs, in particular, the heart, kidneys, liver;
  • use of the so-called diabethogenic drugs, namely, oral contraceptives and glucocorticoids;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • stressful states;
  • endocrine diseases;
  • autoimmune diseases;
  • bad habits (smoking, drinking);
  • genetic predisposition.

In children, impaired glucose tolerance occurs no less frequently than in adults. Causes of its occurrence in young patients can be transferred infectious diseases, shock states, severe stress or surgical intervention.

What is the normal blood sugar level of a healthy person?

Glucose is a simple carbohydrate that serves as an energy substrate for all processes in the body.

It is the product of the breakdown of complex carbohydrate compounds and enters the bloodstream from the organs of the digestive tract.

In response to an increase in the level of sugar in the body, the pancreas produces the necessary amount of the hormone insulin, which contributes to the deposition of glucose in the places designated for this. In a healthy person, the amount of glucose in the blood is 3.5-5.5 mmol / l.

After eating this indicator, of course, increases, but after two hours should return to normal. It is common to talk about impaired glucose tolerance with an increase in sugar to 6.9 mmol / l, and about diabetes, if the level of glucose increases more than 7 mmol / l.

Clinical picture

It is possible to determine the pre-diabetic condition in time only in case of a periodic medical examination. Impaired glucose tolerance refers to the number of insidious pathological processes that are asymptomatic in most clinical cases. Manifestations of pathology appear already at a fairly advanced stage.

Prediabetes can be accompanied by symptoms such as:

  • strong thirst, which is explained by the desire of the body to fill the shortage of fluid and make blood less likely to eliminate the problem of its passage through the vessels;
  • increased urge to urinate, especially at night;
  • rapid and sudden weight loss associated with a lack of insulin synthesis, lack of glucose absorption and lack of energy to ensure the normal functionality of organ structures;
  • an increase in the concentration of sugar leads to a feeling of heat throughout the body;
  • the occurrence of seizures, which contributes to the negative effect of insufficient glucose on muscle tissue;
  • sleep problems in the form of insomnia develop on the background of impaired hormonal levels and insufficient insulin production;
  • damage to the vascular wall and an increase in blood density leads to itching in different parts of the body and a sharp decrease in the quality of vision;
  • migraine headaches and heaviness in the temples;
  • hyperglycemia, which does not pass after two or more hours after a snack.

Very often, impaired glucose tolerance is diagnosed in mature women and even young girls. This is due to the fact that the female body is constantly experiencing hormone surges that negatively affect insulin levels.

With prediabetes, women can develop thrush.

The fact is that sugar is an excellent nutrient medium for the fungus of the genus Candida. In this case, the use of drugs rarely improves the situation.

To get rid of thrush, a woman with prediabetes should be examined by an endocrinologist, normalize her diet and achieve a decrease in blood glucose levels.

The increased amount of sugar in the body badly affects the function of the reproductive sphere of men. Representatives of the strong half of humanity suffering from prediabetes often experience decreased libido, impairment of potency, and erectile dysfunction.

In male patients, when taking sperm for analysis, deterioration of its quality is often determined, mainly due to a decrease in the number of healthy sperm.

Symptoms in children

You can suspect the development of prediabetes in a small child due to the following symptoms:

  • strong thirst;
  • frequent use of the toilet, especially at night;
  • excessive feeling of hunger, which entails an increase in the multiplicity of meals and increase in body weight;
  • severe fatigue when the child gets tired faster than his peers when performing physical exercises or active games;
  • migraine headaches;
  • numbness of the limbs;
  • itchy skin;
  • reduced quality of vision.
Very often, prediabetes in children is a cause of increased blood clotting. Such a violation leads to a decrease in blood flow and deterioration of the blood supply to the internal organs, which negatively affects their function.

Methods for getting rid of prediabetes

Prediabetes is one of the pathological conditions that need correction.

Ignoring the problem is fraught with sad consequences for a sick person, because sooner or later the painful process is transformed into diabetes itself.

Before starting treatment, the patient must pass blood tests to determine the level of sugar in the body, as well as, if necessary, oral glucose tolerance test.

The evaluation of the results of the analyzes is carried out by an endocrinological specialist. An elevated plasma glucose level, which exceeds the level of 6.1 mmol / l, indicates the presence of the disease in humans.

Treatment of prediabetes includes several key points:

  • changing dietary habits and adherence to a special diet;
  • measured physical activity;
  • getting rid of extra pounds and bad habits.

In addition, doctors recommend that patients with high blood sugar monitor blood pressure and cholesterol levels in plasma. Sometimes endocrinologists offer medication to potential diabetics, in particular, Metformin, a hypoglycemic agent for reducing the amount of sugar produced by the liver.

Nutrition for prediabetes has a number of features, including:

  • reducing the size of servings;
  • the refusal to eat carbohydrates with rapid digestibility, carbonated drinks, fried and smoked dishes;
  • introduction to the daily menu of foods with a low glycemic index and a low fat content;
  • increase in the use of pure water, greenery, vegetables and mushrooms;
  • eliminating fat-free products from the diet and minimizing the consumption of white rice and potatoes.

Physical activity plays a huge role in the treatment of prediabetes state. In combination with diet, sports allow patients to get excellent results and normalize sugar levels. Physical activity should be moderate. It can be raised only gradually and under the supervision of specialists.

It is very important to control the heartbeat during classes and to ensure that blood pressure does not rise.

What is dangerous prediabetes?

Pre-diabetic disorders cannot be ignored. The fact is that over time, impaired glucose tolerance develops into type 2 diabetes, which is an incurable disease that significantly worsens the quality of human life.

Prediabetes can be complicated by a number of other pathological changes on the part of organs and systems:

  • the deterioration of the vessels and the development of tissue ischemia caused by a violation of their blood supply;
  • neurological disorders;
  • ulcers and gangrene;
  • reduced vision

Related videos

About the concept and treatment of prediabetes in the video:

If the condition of a person with prediabetes worsens, and various complications appear, you should not postpone the visit to the doctor. The specialist will conduct all the necessary research and prescribe a drug treatment to normalize the pathological processes.

Watch the video: Understanding Type 2 Diabetes (December 2019).