For many, the question arises, what is terrible diabetes? According to endocrinologists, the disease itself is not as terrible as what it can lead to. On the background of diabetes can develop extremely unpleasant and life-threatening consequences.
All complications are conventionally divided into 3 groups - chronic, acute and late. Chronic include renal failure and trophic ulcers. Among the acute complications, ketoacidosis, hypo- and hyperglycemic coma are the most common.
Among the late effects, retinopathy and polyneuropathy are the most common. Such a complication of the disease as a diabetic foot is also widely encountered.
Renal failure and trophic ulcers on the background of diabetes
What is terrible diabetes? The disease is dangerous, because of its background can develop renal failure. Unfortunately, this complication is very common among diabetics.
Why does kidney failure appear? The fact is that in diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2, blood passes through the organ with a high content of glucose. This leads to the fact that within the "glomeruli" of the kidneys an elevated pressure is formed, and the membrane located around the "glomeruli" begins to expand.
As a result of these factors, the capillaries in the balls begin to be crowded out, and against the background of diabetes mellitus, acute renal failure progresses slowly but surely.
The disease manifests itself by the following symptoms:
- Drowsiness, accompanied by headache and drowsiness.
- Diarrhea, vomiting.
- The appearance of metallic taste in the mouth.
- Unpleasant smell from the mouth. It resembles the smell of urine.
- Dyspnea. It occurs even with minimal physical exertion.
- Loss of consciousness (in severe cases).
- Muscle cramps in the legs. Usually they are enhanced at night.
At occurrence of characteristic symptoms of renal failure, it is recommended to pass a urine test for albumin, a urine creatinine test and a blood creatinine test. Based on the tests, the physician will select the optimal treatment strategy.
How is the treatment of this complication? Eliminate this disease is possible only when installing an artificial kidney. But initially, the doctor may prescribe specialized drugs that will delay the moment of transplantation.
In case of kidney failure, the patient will need to constantly monitor blood sugar levels, blood pressure indicators and the amount of body fat.
Trophic ulcers caused by diabetes - that's what's really scary. Trophic ulcer is a defect of the skin that does not heal for a long time. Pathogenic microorganisms can get into the defect, as a result of which necrotic processes develop in the wound.
Trophic ulcers initially manifest themselves as follows:
- Limbs become insensitive to external stimuli.
- The legs will be cold even if it is warm in the room where the diabetic is located. This symptom suggests that against the background of trophic ulcers nerve cells die.
- Pain in the limbs.
Surgical methods are usually used to treat diabetic ulcers. Evacuation, curettes or VAC therapy may be performed. Specific manipulation picks doctor.
If the disease is not running, you can try to get rid of trophic ulcers with the help of drugs. In this case, the following groups of drugs are used:
- Antibiotics with a wide spectrum of action.
- Antiplatelet agents.
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Also on the affected limb the patient needs to apply compresses with ointments. Commonly used creams like Levomekol or Streptolnoven. Antiseptics are used for washing ulcers. Furacilin, chlorhexidine or chamomile decoction may be used.
In severe cases, skin grafts may be necessary. But it happens that drugs are ineffective. In this case, the amputation of the affected limb is performed.
Hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic coma
Hypoglycemic coma is a condition that develops due to low blood sugar levels. Usually it happens in diabetics who produce treatment incorrectly. Hypoglycemia often results from too high insulin dosages.
How does this pathology manifest itself? Initially, the patient is worried about a headache, increased fatigue, frequent urination. Over time, arrhythmia develops and so-called Kussmaul breathing develops.
Vomiting, dilated pupils, tremor of the extremities, increased sweating, impaired vision also indicate the development of hypoglycemic coma. Blood sugar levels are usually below 5 mmol / l.
If the patient does not provide timely medical care, he loses consciousness. Against the background of hypoglycemia, there is a possibility of death, so first aid should be provided immediately.
In hypoglycemia, the following manipulations are performed:
- The diabetic needs to inject a glucose solution into the vein. If it is not at hand, you can spread glucose-based paste on the gums or give the patient sweetness.
- Be sure to put the patient in such a way that he did not choke on his own vomit.
- If the patient loses consciousness, then he should put a piece of sugar behind his cheek.
In a hospital environment, glucose is administered to the patient (40% solution). Adrenaline solution can also be used to quickly increase blood glucose levels. After the relief of acute hypoglycemia, the dosage of insulin is adjusted, and the appropriate diet is prescribed.
Hyperglycemic coma is the exact opposite of hypoglycemic coma. Hyperglycemia is a consequence of high blood sugar levels. It usually occurs when the patient does not comply with medical recommendations.
For example, if a patient injects insulin out of time, or the insulin dosage is too low. Insulin administration can also lead to the development of hyperglycemia, since many people do not inject the hormone subcutaneously, but intramuscularly.
How does hyperglycemia manifest itself? If this complication progresses, the following symptoms occur:
- Great thirst. It is accompanied by a feeling of dry mouth and frequent urination.
- Increased fatigue.
- Nausea or vomiting.
- The appearance of the smell of acetone from the mouth.
- Diarrhea or constipation.
Before doctors help the patient, it is recommended to inject short insulin and lay the patient on its side. Also, be sure to follow the pulse or breathing. If necessary, heart massage or artificial respiration is performed.
In a hospital setting, insulin is administered to the patient and other drugs are used to help normalize blood glucose levels. A soda solution is used to restore the acid-base balance.
In the process of rehabilitation after a hyper- or hypoglycemic coma, the patient must take vitamins, for example, Complivit Diabetes.
Retinopathy and nephropathy in diabetes
Retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes that occurs when an incorrectly chosen treatment regimen. The probability of disease progression increases if a person smokes or suffers from overweight.
Moreover, retinopathy develops significantly more often in patients who develop hypertension, renal failure, or blood cholesterol levels in the presence of diabetes.
Retinopathy is a pathology in which the retinal vessels are affected. The progression of the disease is indicated by symptoms such as a feeling of discomfort in the eyes, blurred vision, hemorrhages in the eyeball.
If the patient develops the characteristic symptoms of retinopathy, then he needs to undergo a comprehensive diagnosis. Such diagnostic measures are used as:
- Ultrasound of the eye.
Treatment of pathology can be done in several ways. Medications are used in the initial stages of retinopathy. The patient is assigned angioprotectors and antiplatelet agents. They improve the work of blood vessels.
Treatment can also be made using laser therapy or vitrectomy. These procedures are effective, and in most cases allow you to stop vision problems.
Diabetic nephropathy is an extremely severe pathology characterized by damage to the renal vessels. As the disease progresses, the vessels are strangled, and the kidneys begin to work worse.
Pathology manifests itself in the following ways:
- Great thirst in the mouth. It especially increases after eating and at night. Thirst is accompanied by a feeling of dry mouth and swelling of the face.
- Frequent urination. Despite frequent visits to the toilet, the amount of urine decreases.
- General weakness, drowsiness, headache.
- Pain in the lumbar region. They can give the crotch. Back pain sometimes aggravated during exercise.
- Nausea or diarrhea. In severe cases, nephropathy is accompanied by constant vomiting.
It should be noted that on the background of nephropathy, renal failure appears very often. That is why the first manifestations of pathology should immediately consult a doctor.
How is the treatment performed? At stage 1-2 of nephropathy, medications are used that reduce blood sugar levels. When nephropathy goes to stage 3, it is not enough to use only sugar-reducing drugs.
In this case, diuretics and ACE inhibitors of calcium channel blockers are connected. With the help of drugs of this type, you can stop the symptoms of nephropathy, and prevent further progression of the pathology.
If nephropathy goes to 4-5 severity, then the use of drugs is impractical. In this case, doctors resort to dialysis. During this procedure, the blood is cleaned with the help of specialized equipment.
In extremely severe cases, a kidney and pancreas transplant is performed.
Diabetic foot: what is it and how to treat?
Diabetic foot is a pathology in which the skin, bones, large and small vessels of the foot are affected. What a diabetic foot looks like in the initial stage, many have seen in the photo and video.
Diabetic foot occurs due to high blood sugar levels and impaired blood circulation in the vessels. The likelihood of the onset of pathology increases if arthritis or vascular diseases develop in the presence of diabetes.
How does diabetic foot syndrome manifest itself? The first symptom of pathology is the reduction of the pain threshold. The foot may be completely insensitive to external stimuli.
Also signs of pathology are:
- Decreased temperature of the foot. This part of the limb becomes cold to the touch.
- Ingrown nail. Often, nails become black.
- The appearance of cracks on the heels. The defect can fester and hurt a lot.
- Fungal lesions of the foot. They usually occur if pathogens enter the cracks that form.
- Deformation of the foot. It happens that with a diabetic foot, the thumb bone grows in size.
If a diabetic foot is not treated promptly, gangrene can develop. In this case, physicians resort to limb amputation, otherwise the pathological process will spread.
And how is diabetic foot syndrome treated? The patient is prescribed drugs alpha lipoic acid, medications to improve blood circulation and painkillers.
Manipulations such as growth hormone therapy, stem cell therapy or plasma jet treatment will help to completely get rid of the pathology. Also today, extracorporeal shock wave therapy is used. The video in this article clearly shows how diabetes is so dangerous for a person.