Steroid diabetes (secondary insulin-dependent) appears as a result of identifying a high content of corticosteroids in the blood, which remain there for a very long time.
Very often it develops as a result of the appearance of serious complications of diseases in which there is an accelerated production of hormones.
However, nevertheless, it most often appears after prolonged treatment with hormonal drugs. That is why this disease is also called the medicinal form of diabetes.
Steroid diabetes in its origin does not belong to the pancreatic group of diseases. It is important to note that initially it is not associated with various types of disorders of the pancreas.
What drugs can cause illness?
People who do not suffer from disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, in case of overdose of steroid hormones, can get a mild form of the disease, which goes away immediately after their cancellation. The important point is that about half of all patients who suffer from this ailment receive a transition from an insulin-independent form to an insulin-dependent form of the ailment.
Glucocorticosteroids (Dexamethasone, Prednisone, Hydrocortisone) are used as effective and strong anti-inflammatory drugs for such illnesses:
- bronchial asthma;
- disruption of the normal functioning of the protective functions of the body;
- multiple sclerosis.
Steroid type diabetes mellitus can occur as a result of long-term use of drugs such as oral contraceptives and thiazide diuretics.
Very strong doses of corticosteroids can be used during treatment, which aims to relieve inflammation after surgery, during which a kidney transplant was performed.
After such a serious operation, patients should take appropriate drugs throughout their lives to suppress the protective functions of the body. They have a tendency to inflammatory processes that can affect precisely transplanted organs.
The symptoms of the disease, which arose as a result of long-term treatment with steroids, assert that patients fall into the category of very vulnerable people.
In order to completely eliminate the onset of diabetes, people suffering from overweight should take care of themselves and begin to lose those extra pounds.
But those who have a normal weight, you need to start playing sports and slightly adjust your daily diet, adding to it more fresh herbs, vegetables and fruits.
The disease differs in that it accommodates the symptoms of diabetes of the first and second types.
The illness originates from the fact that an impressive amount of corticosteroids begins to actively damage the beta cells of the pancreas.
For some time they continue to produce pancreatic hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism.
After some time, the amount of hormone produced is noticeably reduced and the sensitivity of tissues to it is disturbed. This is characteristic of type 2 diabetes. Later, a certain number of beta cells is completely destroyed, which leads to the cessation of active insulin production. In this case, the illness begins to proceed in the form characteristic of type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes.
Steroid diabetes symptoms has the following:
- increased urination;
- intense thirst;
- fast fatiguability.
As a rule, steroid diabetes symptoms are mild, so patients do not pay enough attention to them.
They begin to lose weight quickly, just as with type 1 diabetes. Blood tests do not always help in time to identify the disease.
Quite rarely, the concentration of glucose can be extremely high. In addition, the amount of propanone in the urine also remains within the acceptable range.
Pathogenesis of steroid diabetesResynthesis of protein in an insufficient degree as a result of the presence of an excessive amount of glucocorticoids leads to the formation of sugar from amino acids.
The process of stimulation of glucose-6-phosphatase by these hormones in the liver helps the glucose release from this organ. In addition, glucocorticoids significantly reduce the activity of hexokinase, which slows down the absorption of glucose.
Speaking of steroid diabetes, the biochemistry of the disease lies in the fact that its development can lead to increased protein breakdown, which results in an excessive amount of free fat in the blood. Because of this, the amount of sugar in the blood increases.
In other words, steroid diabetes is the clinical form of this disease, which develops as a result of the high content of adrenal hormones in the blood. This also applies to treatment with drugs that contain these substances.
If it happened so that insulin ceased to be produced in the body, this form of illness proceeds in the same way as diabetes of the first type. But with all this, he has signs of type 2 diabetes.
Treatment depends on what kind of violations are present in this patient. For people who are obese, but they still produce insulin, a special diet and drugs that lower sugar levels will do. These include Glucofage and Thiazolidinedione. Sometimes insignificant “maintenance” doses of insulin are prescribed.
In case of violations of the pancreas, the introduction of insulin dose allows it to function with a lower load. This is possible only if the beta cells still continue their activity. A special diet, which completely excludes the use of products containing carbohydrates, can provide excellent assistance in the treatment.
For people with moderate body mass ratio, you can use diet number 9, and for larger patients - diet number 8.
If a person suffering from steroid diabetes, the pancreas is no longer able to independently produce insulin, then it is prescribed in the form of compulsory injections.
It should not be forgotten about the constant monitoring of blood sugar levels. The treatment process should be carried out in the same way as with diabetes mellitus of the first type. Moreover, it is precisely with this form of illness that it is simply impossible to restore the previously lost beta cells.
The disease of this form is diagnosed when the indicators of glucose concentration in the blood begin to roll over the mark of 11.5 mmol after a meal, and before it are more than 6 mmol. After the detection of anxiety symptoms, an urgent need to contact your doctor for help.
To begin, the specialist should completely eliminate all similar diseases that are included in this group. The process of getting rid of the disease can be both traditional and have an intensive direction. The latter is most effective, but it requires the patient to certain skills of self-control.
The traditional method of treatment is based on a principle that has similarities with similar measures in the second type.
With impaired pancreatic functionality, minimal doses of insulin are prescribed. For treatment, hypoglycemic and hormonal agents are used, such as, for example, Glucophage.
If the patient has a mild form of the disease, then sulfonylureas can be used, which can help in getting rid of it. But this method has side effects, the most dangerous and unexpected of which is the occurrence of myocardial infarction.
This is explained by the fact that carbohydrate metabolism significantly worsens, as a result of which dangerous disturbances in the functioning of organs and systems occur. It is for this reason that the disease can gradually go into the so-called insulin-dependent form.
In some special cases, the most correct solution is the operation. Unnecessary tissue is removed from the adrenal glands if hyperplasia is detected.
After the surgery, the patient's condition improves markedly, and he is recovering. However, one must adhere to the recommendations of the attending physician in order to keep the state stable.
What is steroid diabetes and how is it treated? Answers in the video:
Treatment of steroid diabetes will be successful only if the patient does not neglect the urgent recommendations of the specialist in whom he is observed. It is important when the first symptoms appear in time to go to a medical institution to be examined and find out your diagnosis. After that, the doctor will prescribe the appropriate treatment, which will help only in case of exact compliance with all requirements.
We should not forget that steroid diabetes mellitus results from the prolonged use of hormonal contraceptives and other similar drugs. Also at risk are those suffering from overweight. Therefore, in order to prevent this disease, you should abandon the indiscriminate use of hormonal drugs (if they were not prescribed by a doctor) and begin to monitor your own diet. It is necessary to enrich your diet with healthy foods, in particular, vegetables, fruits, herbs, legumes, as well as completely eliminate harmful sugar, which does not bring absolutely no benefit.