Diabetes complications

Obesity in type 2 diabetes: what is dangerous and how to lose weight

Losing weight is one of the first recommendations that a patient receives after finding 2 types of diabetes. Obesity and diabetes are two sides of the same pathological condition. It has been established that in countries with an increased standard of living, the percentage of full people and diabetics simultaneously increases. The latest WHO report on this topic says: "With an increase in wealth, people from the poor become sick."

In developed countries, the incidence of diabetes among wealthy people, on the contrary, is falling. This is due to the fashion on a slim body, sports, natural food. Rebuilding your lifestyle is not easy, at first you have to fight with your own body, trying to get out of the vicious circle. These efforts will be generously rewarded: when the normal weight is reached, the risk of diabetes is reduced several times, and the existing disease is much easier, in some cases it is possible to achieve compensation for type 2 diabetes solely by changing dietary habits and physical culture.

How are diabetes and obesity related

Fat is present in the body of anyone, even the most slender person. Adipose tissue located under the skin helps to regulate body temperature, performs the function of mechanical protection. Fat is the reserves of our body, with a lack of food thanks to them we get energy for life. Fat is an important endocrine organ that produces estrogen and leptin.

Diabetes and pressure surges will be a thing of the past.

  • Sugar normalization -95%
  • Elimination of vein thrombosis - 70%
  • Elimination of palpitations -90%
  • Excessive Blood Pressure - 92%
  • Increased vigor during the day, improved sleep at night -97%

For the normal performance of these functions, it is enough that the fat is up to 20% of body weight in men and up to 25% in women. All that is higher is already an excess that negatively affects our health.

How to find out if there is excess fat in the body? You can get tested in a fitness center or a nutritionist. A simpler option is to calculate the body mass index. Its result fairly accurately reflects the reality of all people, except for actively practicing athletes.

To find out BMI, you need to divide your weight by height in a square. For example, with a height of 1.6 m and a weight of 63 kg BMI = 63 / 1.6 x 1.6 = 24.6.

BMICharacteristic
> 25Overweight or pre-obesity. Already at this stage, the risk of diabetes is more than 5 times. As body weight increases, the likelihood of type 2 diabetes is higher.
> 30Obesity 1 degree.
> 35Obesity 2 degrees.
> 40Obesity grade 3, accompanied by weakness, shortness of breath, constipation, pain in the joints, impaired carbohydrate metabolism - metabolic syndrome or diabetes.

In healthy men, adipose tissue is evenly distributed, and in women, sediment prevails in the chest, thighs and buttocks. In obesity, the main reserves are often located in the abdomen, in the form of so-called visceral fat. It easily releases fatty acids into the blood and has low insulin sensitivity, so the visceral type of obesity is considered the most dangerous.

Excessive high carbohydrate nutrition is the main cause of obesity, insulin resistance and further diabetes.

What happens in the body with excess food:

  1. All calories that have not been spent on vital activity are deposited in fat.
  2. With an excess of adipose tissue, the content of lipids in the blood increases, which means that the risk of vascular disease. To avoid this, insulin begins to be synthesized in an increased amount in the body, one of its functions is to inhibit the breakdown of fats.
  3. An excess of carbohydrates leads to increased blood glucose. It must be removed from the bloodstream in a short time, and this is once again helped by enhanced insulin production. The main consumers of glucose are muscles. With a sedentary lifestyle, their energy requirements are much lower than they come from food. Therefore, the body's cells refuse to take glucose, ignoring insulin. This condition is called insulin resistance. The higher the level of sugar and insulin in the blood, the stronger the resistance of the cells.
  4. At the same time, a person increases obesity, hormones are disturbed, and problems with blood vessels appear. The complex of these disorders is called metabolic syndrome.
  5. Ultimately, insulin resistance leads to a paradoxical situation - there is always high sugar in the blood, and tissues starve. At this time, we can already say that a person developed type 2 diabetes.

What is dangerous overweight for diabetics?

Harm of overweight with diabetes mellitus:

  • constantly elevated blood levels of cholesterol, which leads to atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels;
  • during vasoconstriction, the heart is forced to work under constant stress, which is fraught with heart attack and other disorders;
  • poor vascular permeability aggravates all chronic complications of diabetes: the risk of retinal detachment, renal failure, gangrene in diabetic foot increases;
  • with obesity, the risk of hypertension is 3 times higher;
  • increased weight creates an unbearable load on the joints and the spine. Obese people often experience persistent knee pain and osteochondrosis;
  • overweight in women 3 times increases the likelihood of breast cancer;
  • In men, testosterone production decreases, therefore sexual function is weakened, the body is formed according to the female type: wide hips, narrow shoulders;
  • obesity is harmful to the gallbladder: its motility is disturbed, inflammation and gallstone disease are frequent;
  • life expectancy decreases, the combination of type 2 diabetes with obesity increases the risk of death by 1.5 times.

How to lose weight sick diabetes

All people need to fight obesity, regardless of whether they have diabetes. Slimming allows you to achieve better control over the type 2 disease. In addition, diabetes mellitus is well prevented: with timely weight loss, it is possible to prevent, and even reverse, the initial metabolic disorders.

Despite the fact that the search for medical methods of treatment of obesity is constantly being conducted, at present they can only slightly support the patient in the fight against obesity. The main role in the treatment is still played by diet and sport.

Diet

How to break the chain "fat - more insulin - more fat - even more insulin"? The only way to do this in diabetes and metabolic syndrome is a low carbohydrate diet.

Power Rules:

  1. Food with high GI (fast carbohydrates) is completely excluded and food with a high content of slow carbohydrates is greatly reduced. The basis of the diet for diabetics with obesity - protein foods and vegetables with excess fiber.
  2. At the same time, the total caloric content of food decreases. Daily deficit should be around 500, maximum 1000 kcal. With this condition, a weight loss of 2-4 kg per month is achieved. Do not think that it is not enough. Even at this rate, sugar levels in diabetes will significantly decrease after 2 months. But rapid weight loss is dangerous, because the body does not have time to adapt, muscle atrophy occurs, a serious shortage of vitamins and minerals.
  3. To reduce the risk of thrombosis and improve the excretion of fat decomposition products, it is necessary to ensure adequate intake of water. Standard for a slim person 1.5 liters of patients with obesity is not enough. The daily rate of fluid (taking into account contained in the products) is calculated as 30 g per 1 kg of weight.

Physical exercise

To lose weight in diabetes, fit any type of load, ranging from walks in the park, ending with strength training. In any case, the need of muscles for glucose increases and insulin resistance decreases. Insulin in the blood becomes less, which means that the fat begins to break down faster.

The best results are given by aerobic training - jogging, team sports, aerobics. With obesity, most of them are not available for health reasons, so you can start with any type of motor activity, gradually complicating and increasing the pace of training.

In people far from sport, after the start of classes, the muscles are actively restored and strengthened. With the growth of muscle mass, the daily calorie consumption increases, so weight loss is accelerated.

Drug support

The following drugs can help get rid of obesity:

  • If the increased weight is caused by irresistible sweets, the cause may be chromium deficiency. Chromium picolinate, 200 mcg per day, will help to cope with it. You can not drink it during pregnancy and severe diabetes, renal and hepatic failure.
  • To reduce insulin resistance, an endocrinologist may prescribe Metformin for patients with type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes.
  • During weight loss, the content of fatty acids in the blood will temporarily increase, which is fraught with thrombosis. Ascorbic acid or drugs with it, for example, Cardiomagnyl can be prescribed to thin the blood.
  • Fish oil capsules will help lower blood cholesterol.

In the case of morbid obesity grade 3, surgical methods can be applied, for example, bypass surgery or gastric banding.

The first weeks of losing weight can be difficult: there will be weakness, headache, a desire to quit. Acetone can be detected in the urine. This is a common phenomenon associated with the splitting of fats. If you drink plenty of water and keep sugar normal, ketoacidosis does not threaten a patient with diabetes.

Watch the video: The effects of obesity and how to lose weight (November 2019).

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