Diagnostics

Urine analysis of sugar: the norm in women, the causes of deviations of indicators and methods of therapy

The rate of glucose in the urine of women is an indicator confirming the normal flow of carbohydrate metabolism in the body.

According to her, the possible presence of urine in sugar should be so low that the instruments used for testing cannot fix it.

Diagnosing an increase in concentration indicates a symptomatic condition — glucosuria, which is a symptom of a number of diseases of the liver, kidneys, or pancreas. Therefore, the timely detection of this condition and the determination of the causes that caused it, allows time to begin treatment and avoid serious consequences.

How does glucose appear in the urine?

Carbohydrate metabolism is a complex multi-step process.

During the resorption of sugar in the kidneys, the lack of enzymes that bind to its molecules and then transport them through the epithelial barrier into the bloodstream causes glucosuria.

To find out what the rate of sugar (glucose) in the urine of women by age, you need to use the appropriate table. The amount of sugar contained in the blood, which can resorb the kidneys, is called the renal threshold, its rate is 8.8-9.9 mmol / l, while no more than 0.08 mmol / l is recorded in the urine. Such a low concentration suggests that there is no sugar in the urine or to denote its presence by the term “traces” of sugar.

Since sugar in the urine is a threshold substance, it is detected when the renal threshold in the blood reaches 10 mmol / l or more.

With an increase in the above amount of glucose, the kidneys do not have time to absorb it, and then it leaves the body through the urinary tract along with urine. Strengthening this condition leads to the fact that the resorption of sugar by the kidneys is significantly reduced and may even be lost. Therefore, when glucosuria is detected, the patient requires medical supervision.

Often this condition is accompanied by symptoms such as frequent thirst and increased urination (polyuria). Their appearance indicates the development of renal failure.

A sign indicating the suspicion of diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia is a consistently positive test for glucosuria.

The rate of sugar in the urine in women after 50-60 years may be slightly higher, which is explained by a decrease in the efficiency of the internal organs. Physiological can also be the detection of high sugar in the morning urine - up to 1.7 mmol / l, while the analyzes taken at another time of day, it is not detected.

This condition may manifest as a result of various factors. Children have a higher renal threshold than adults, so the indicator of blood glucose in the range of 10.45-12.65 for them is the norm.

More accurately diagnose the state will allow research:

  • according to the method of Gaines;
  • according to the Benedict method;
  • by the method of Althausen;
  • polarimetric method.
The presence of a pathological condition in the form of glycosuria bears a direct threat to health, since it leads to dehydration (dehydration), which develops due to osmotic diuresis.

Types of glycosuria

If we talk about such an indicator as sugar in the urine, the rate for women is exceeded, it may be of a physiological or pathological nature.

The cause of physiological glucosuria can be stress, medication, pregnancy, carbohydrate diet, exercise:

  • alimentary glucosuria is a consequence of the increased amount of carbohydrates in the menu. The level of sugar at the same time can be normalized as food is assimilated;
  • manifestation of iatrogenic glucosuria is the result of taking corticosteroid medications;
  • emotional glucosuria develops when the physiological stress experienced by the body causes hypersecretion of stress hormones that increase metabolic decompensation;
  • pregnancy is a special condition of a woman when the appearance of glycosuria is the result of renal dysfunction. Since the threshold level during this period does not exceed 7 mmol / l, any abuse of carbohydrates causes a jump in the level of sugar. Such a state is not dangerous, but can cause hormonal disorders, which in turn causes the development of fetal pathology. It is also important when this symptom is detected to differentiate it from pregnant diabetes.

When physiological glucosuria appears, the sugar index is low and decreases as soon as the glucose level in plasma returns to normal.

Pathological form of glycosuria may be due to:

  • insulin deficiency due to depletion of beta cells in the pancreas. Endocrine glucosuria is a clinical symptom indicative of acute pancreatitis, pheochromocytoma, Itsenko-Cushing syndrome. Urine with diabetes in women also contains an increased amount of sugar;
  • damage to the central nervous system due to trauma or brain tumor, meningitis, encephalitis, stroke;
  • liver disease associated with impaired glycogen deposition;
  • actions of phosphorus compounds, strychnine, morphine or chloroform. The manifestation of a toxic variety of glycosuria is a symptom of poisoning by toxic substances contained in the above listed medications.

In more rare cases, glucosuria may be a consequence of a violation of the process of reabsorption in the kidneys themselves, while the appearance of sugar in urine occurs against the background of the corresponding normal levels of plasma glucose.

This condition is also called renal or renal glucosuria. It may be the result of a congenital abnormality, that is, caused by a genetic defect, or acquired as a result of a disease of nephritis or nephrosis.

In febrile form, glucosuria is accompanied by high fever.

Features of the collection of urine and analysis

Detect the presence of glucose in the urine can be both in the laboratory and at home. The express analyzers specially designed for this purpose, gluco-tests, will help to identify it at home. They are a set of indicator paper strips treated with reagents capable of oxidizing glucose. This is a simple and convenient way to get quick results in just a couple of minutes.

Glucotest

If the instructions are followed, the result obtained with glucotest is 99% accurate. If the test strips did not change their color during the analysis, this indicates that the indicators are within the normal range. More accurate qualitative and quantitative results can only give laboratory tests.

In the laboratories of medical institutions there are 2 types of research - morning and daily urine analysis. The latter is more informative, it is carried out in the event that the morning did not show any deviations.

For testing of the morning biomaterial, urine collected at the first urination after the morning awakening is used.

If you need to collect daily urine, the biomaterial is collected in a large container - usually a clean 3-liter jar, which is stored for a day in the refrigerator. Upon completion of the collection of daily biomaterial, the jar is shaken and cast into a special container up to 200 ml of urine.

To make the urine analysis as accurate as possible, it is recommended not to eat sweets, buckwheat, citrus fruits, beets and carrots a day before its collection. On the day of collection, women must wash their external genitals before performing this manipulation. This applies to both morning and daily analysis. It is also important to take into account that physical and emotional overstrain can affect the results of analyzes, therefore, when sugar is detected, the analysis must be repeated.

When a positive result is found for the presence of sugar in urine, an additional ultrasound examination of the kidneys can be prescribed as an additional study to identify the root cause, as well as tests to identify the susceptibility to glucose, its daily fluctuations.

If the results of 3 daily urine tests indicate the presence of glycosuria, then additional studies should be conducted on diabetes.

During menstruation, urine is not taken for analysis.

Therapy methods

The presence of a high sugar level in a woman's urine is a reason to seek medical help from an endocrinologist, who will identify its root cause, give recommendations on diet, prescribe tests for the differential diagnosis of diabetes.

Differential diagnosis of diabetes involves:

  • blood sugar level analysis;
  • Ultrasound of the kidneys;
  • glucose sensitivity testing;
  • tracking daily changes in urine sugar level (glucosuric profile).

If diabetes is confirmed, tests will be required to identify pancreatic disorders affecting glucose uptake. This will reveal the degree of dependence on insulin and, accordingly, the need for replacement therapy.

The process of treating diabetes includes:

  • taking hypoglycemic drugs in pill or injectable form;
  • adherence to a low-carb diet that eliminates alcohol and restricts fats;
  • measured physical activity.

As an auxiliary tool that can help reduce the sugar concentration, homeopathy and herbal medicine can be applied. Their purpose is made on an individual basis, taking into account other symptomatic manifestations of diabetes.

Related videos

Why urine glucose rises, the rate in women and everything you need to know about taking this analysis in the video:

Sugar concentration in urine is an important indicator of a woman’s health. Diseases accompanied by its increase are difficult to treat. In this regard, it becomes clear that excess of the norm of sugar is a serious symptom that requires mandatory medical supervision, and its treatment depends on the degree of glycosuria.

Watch the video: Critical Care Paramedic 9: Neurologic Emergencies (December 2019).

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