Let's say right away that while diabetes is incurable. The goal of therapy is to normalize blood glucose, in other words, to compensate for diabetes. If a man keeps glucose for a long time, complications do not develop, and some even regress. The state of health with compensated diabetes is good, the symptoms of the disease are absent, the life expectancy is the same as in healthy men. Due to the chronic nature of diabetes, its prevention is essential. Diabetes can be avoided with the help of simple measures that fit the concept of a healthy lifestyle.
Symptoms and signs of beginning diabetes
The incidence of diabetes is increasing from year to year. At a young age, men are ill more than women, by the age of 55 the number of diabetics of both sexes becomes the same. According to statistics, every third patient does not know that he has developed diabetes, does not feel any symptoms and continues to lead a normal life, thereby aggravating the consequences of this pathology.
Speaking about diabetes in men after 30, they usually mean the most common (more than 90% of cases) type 2 disease. Often in the first years after the onset of metabolic disturbances of pronounced symptoms, this type of diabetes does not have, it can only be identified with the help of tests.
Diabetes and pressure surges will be a thing of the past.
- Sugar normalization -95%
- Elimination of vein thrombosis - 70%
- Elimination of palpitations -90%
- Excessive Blood Pressure - 92%
- Increased vigor during the day, improved sleep at night -97%
How does diabetes begin:
|The first signs of diabetes||The causes of this symptom|
|Polydipsia - unnatural, intense thirst.||One of the first symptoms. As soon as the sugar begins to linger in the vessels, the density of blood inevitably rises. In order to dilute it, the body activates a thirst center in the brain.|
|Polyuria is an excess urine excretion.||With the onset of diabetes, this symptom is a consequence of increased water intake. When the sugar concentration in the vessels rises above the renal threshold (about 9 in adult men), it begins to flow into the urine. At the same time, polyuria is significantly enhanced, up to 3-4 liters.|
|Fatigue, frequent headaches.||The main manifestation of diabetes in the early years of the disease is insulin resistance. In this state, the penetration of glucose into tissues is difficult, because of which the organs of the men experience energy starvation.|
|The deterioration of health after eating.||Excessive consumption of sweets, potato dishes, flour products dramatically increases blood sugar. The symptom of this rise are dizziness, weakness, a feeling of heat after eating.|
These symptoms are very rare at the same time, usually men notice one or two of them. It happens that the signs of high sugar are visible only for a few weeks at the first stage of diabetes, after which the body gets used to the new conditions, and all the unpleasant sensations disappear.
Late signs of diabetes in men occur after a few years of life with high sugar:
- Slow healing of minor wounds, the appearance of scuffs on the feet, in the inguinal or axillary region.
- The increase in the volume of the abdomen, the formation of fat "lifebuoy", leaving on the sides and partially on the back.
- Itching in men on the head of the penis, around the anus, inside the urethra.
- Fungus in the mouth, on the nails, in the folds of the skin, on the genitals. Signs of diabetes in men are balanitis or balanoposthitis. Their symptoms are itching, whitish plaque, redness of the head of the penis and / or foreskin. Inflammation causes pain during intercourse and urination.
- Dry skin, especially on the feet, calves and hands. Later, skin peeling begins, then red spots appear on the places of peeling.
- Tingling in the legs, fingers. Manifestation of diabetes and in the form of violations of the sensitivity of certain areas of the skin, night cramps in the calf.
- Decreased sensitivity of the glans penis, problems with erection.
- Blurry vision. Signs of the negative effect of diabetes on the retina - the man sees as if through the fog, before his eyes may appear gray floating spots.
- Black acanthosis is one of the rare outward signs of diabetes. Manifested in the form of dark pigment spots in the folds of the skin, usually in the armpits or groin.
Some men do not notice the symptoms until the glucose rises to dangerous numbers - 14 mmol / L and above. With such a high hyperglycemia, the body is unable to control the metabolism, and there is decompensation. Ketone bodies begin to enter the bloodstream, which leads to an acetone smell of urine, exhaled air, and sometimes skin. If you ignore this symptom, the condition can worsen in a matter of days before the diabetic coma.
Type 1 carbohydrate disorders characterized by rapid flow. Symptoms of diabetes in men are the same as in type 2 disease, but they occur in a matter of hours. Sugar is growing rapidly, for a few days the patient may fall into a coma. In men, after 40 the debut of type 1 diabetes is a rarity. If signs of high sugar appear suddenly and quickly aggravate, it is worth checking for an intermediate form between type 1 and type 2 - Lada-diabetes.
The main causes of diabetes in men
Glucose is the main supplier of energy for our body, the main part of which we get from food. After digesting food and splitting complex sugars, glucose enters the bloodstream. So she could go further into the cells, the body needs insulin. This hormone is produced by the pancreas in response to an increase in blood sugar.
At the initial stage of diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance gradually increases in men. The cause of this condition is the excessive flow of sugar into the blood from high-carbohydrate foods. The main consumer of glucose is muscle. With a low level of activity costs are minimal, which means that the cells will by all means prevent the penetration of unwanted sugars into them. They can do this in the only way: by ignoring insulin, that is, by increasing insulin resistance.
Reasons that increase the likelihood of type 2 in men:
- Abundant food.
- Obesity. The more overweight a person has, the higher his insulin resistance is.
- Localization of body fat. The most dangerous obesity typical for men is abdominal. Its signs are: fat accumulates between the organs, a large hard belly is formed. A sign of a high risk of diabetes is the abdominal volume of more than 94 cm.
- Hypodynamia, lack of muscle mass. The less glucose is spent on vital activity, the more it remains in the blood.
- Hereditary factors. Predisposition to disorders of carbohydrate metabolism can be predicted by examining the history of the next of kin. This reason is not decisive. An active slim man has almost no risk of diabetes, even if both his parents suffer from this disease.
- Age. Diabetes in men after 50 years occurs 30% more often than at a younger age. Doctors suggest that this is due to weight gain and a general deterioration in health. See the article - blood sugar standards in men after 50 years.
Distinct symptoms of diabetes in most men often appear only with high blood glucose levels. This usually occurs after 5-7 years from the onset of the disease. As a rule, examination at this time of the disease reveals more than one complication.
How to recognize diabetes at an early stage:
- The simplest analysis is blood glucose; a fence is taken from a vein only on an empty stomach. In a healthy man, the result should be no more than 5.9 mmol / l, in diabetes mellitus - above 7. If the analysis is performed using a home glucometer, the warning sign is glucose above 6.1. Blood glucose meters have low accuracy, so laboratory analysis is needed to confirm the disease.
- The glucose tolerance test will help to detect an increase in insulin resistance at the prediabetes stage. Blood is taken twice within 2 hours, and the patient consumes glucose between the intakes. The result of the second measurement above 7.8 is estimated as prediabetes, above 11.1 - as diabetes.
On average and old age, tests should be done once every 3 years, men with a high probability of diabetes - every year.
Treatment of sugar disease at different stages
Diabetes compensation scheme is simple. If the disease could be detected in the early stages, to reduce sugar, it is enough to lose weight, increase activity (from 150 minutes of intense workouts per week), build muscle, low-carb diet. To reduce insulin resistance, metformin is usually prescribed (Siofor et al.). Nutritional errors can be partially corrected with acarbose (Glucobay).
If diabetes is found in a man a few years later, then diet, sports and metformin may not be enough to compensate for the disease. By this time, insulin production falls, therefore, additional preparations that stimulate the pancreas are prescribed: traditional glibenclamide (Maninil), glimepiride (Amaryl), more modern vildagliptin (Galvus), sitagliptin (Januvia) and others.
If you stick to a low-carb diet and take drugs for smoking the pancreas, insulin synthesis in diabetes can be extended by decades. The more often the blood sugar is higher than normal, the more actively the complications will progress, the faster the pancreas will be exhausted and will stop producing insulin.
As soon as the man’s insulin is insufficient for normal carbohydrate metabolism, it will have to be injected. At first, 1-2 injections per day are enough. If the synthesis of insulin has stopped completely, the scheme of insulin therapy becomes the same as with type 1 diabetes: from 4 shots per day.
Complications and consequences
A small number of diabetics (less than 5%) complications develop with timely treatment. Approximately 15% of men are lucky. In them, the progression of consequences is slowed down even with insufficient sugar control. In the overwhelming majority, the severity of complications of diabetes mellitus directly depends on the degree of compensation.
Diabetes is dangerous for all tissues of a man’s body. The cause of pathologies becomes glycation processes, or sugars, which are amplified many times if blood glucose is elevated. First, the vessels that are first in contact with sugar suffer. Their walls lose their tone, become fragile, and cease to function. Small capillaries are destroyed, tissue sections remain without blood supply. The effects of hyperglycemia are especially noticeable in organs whose functioning is impossible without an extensive network of blood vessels: the kidneys and the retina of the eyes. The defeat of large vessels leads to sustained hypertension, increases the number of heart attacks and strokes in men several times.
Hemoglobin glycation with high sugar can reach 20%, as a result of which the cells experience constant oxygen starvation. Diabetes and nerves are affected. Neuropathies of different localization - the cause of pain in the limbs that are difficult to treat, ulcers on the feet. Diabetes affects the potency of men. The blood filling of the cavernous bodies becomes insufficient, the sensitivity of the genital organs decreases due to neuropathy. Damage to the nerves leads to the fact that the sphincters cease to function normally, retrograde ejaculation develops: the sperm does not come out, but enters the bladder, because of which the natural conception of the child is impossible.
Exclusion of factors that increase the likelihood of diabetes - the main measures of its prevention. Weight loss to normal, a sharp reduction in carbohydrates, the complete withdrawal from the diet of simple sugars (glucose, sucrose), regular exercise can guaranteed to prevent diabetes. Even at the stage of prediabetes, when sugar has already gone beyond the limits of the norm, these preventive measures are effective in 75% of men.