Inactive lifestyle, poor diet, addiction and other factors lead to the development of vascular pathologies. Atherosclerosis of the neck vessels is one of the most dangerous diseases.
If the disease leads to the formation of cholesterol plaques in the arteries, then this requires immediate treatment. After all, their proximity to the brain can lead to a number of complications - necrosis, stroke, angina.
Unfortunately, hypercholesterolemia does not manifest itself initially, so the diagnosis of the disease often occurs when it is at a late stage of development. Before knowing how to treat atherosclerotic deposits, you should find out how they form and how dangerous they are.
How do arteriosclerotic plaques arise and what do they cause?
Cholesterol - an important element that is part of the cell membrane. This substance is involved in the synthesis of sex hormones and helps to digest fat-soluble vitamins.
There is good (HDL) and bad (LDL) cholesterol. The structure of the substance does not differ much.
Harmful cholesterol is attached to the walls of blood vessels. Initially, the artery is covered with a thin layer of fatty alcohol, over time, the layering becomes thicker, and the vascular lumen narrows. With a high level of blood cholesterol, atherosclerotic plaques can be deposited not only in the neck, but also in other parts of the body.
When LDL is covered with vascular walls, a thrombus is formed. If it enters the bloodstream, it can cause the development of cardiovascular pathologies, necrosis. Cholesterol plaques in the vessels of the neck are especially dangerous, since in this place the lumen of the arteries is very narrow, which can result in ischemia.
It is noteworthy that only 20% of cholesterol enters the body along with food, the main part of the substance is produced by the liver. Therefore, the development of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis requires the presence of provoking factors. Leading causes are:
- addiction (smoking, alcoholism);
- lack of physical activity;
- autoimmune diseases;
- unhealthy diet;
- viral infections;
- hormonal disorders;
- disruptions in lipid metabolism;
Since cholesterol plaques in the neck lead to diseases of the circulatory system, ischemia of the heart, it is important to know about the symptoms of pathology.
The presence of atherosclerotic lesions in the vessels is indicated by such symptoms as general malaise, numbness of the limbs, blurred vision, insomnia, headaches, speech confusion, memory loss, dizziness.
Drug and surgical treatment
If, after diagnosis, atherosclerotic plaques were found in the carotid arteries, first of all the doctor prescribes statins to the patient. The principle of action of drugs is to inhibit the enzyme involved in the synthesis of cholesterol. Also, drugs bind and remove LDL from the body, inhibit the process of absorption of bad cholesterol, which enters the body with food.
Statins have a number of pleiotropic effects - reduce the size of plaques, relieve inflammation in the vessels, have an antioxidant and anti-ischemic effect. The preparations eliminate endothelial dysfunction, positively affect the coagulation blood system and myocardial hypertrophy.
The most popular types of statins are Lovastatin, Rosuvastatin, Fluvastatin, Simvastatin and Atorvastatin. The dosage of drugs is selected for each patient individually, and in the process of treatment it is necessary to monitor lipid metabolism and liver performance.
Patients with high triglycerides, metabolic syndrome and obesity should be rid of cholesterol plaques with the help of fibrates. Drugs eliminate the symptoms of atherosclerosis, not allowing LDL to accumulate on the walls of blood vessels. Popular fibroic acid based products are Fenofibrate, Traykor, Lipantil, Atromidine, and Bezafibrat, which is especially effective for people with diabetes.
Also, drug treatment of cholesterol plaques in the vessels of the neck involves taking the following drugs:
- Ion exchange resins (Colestipol, Cholesteramine). They bind bile acids, which causes the liver to seize lipids from the blood, turning them into good cholesterol.
- Blood thinners (Cardiomagnyl, Aspirin). Prevent the formation of blood clots.
- Sorbents. Do not allow harmful cholesterol to enter the blood.
- Vitamins (B3, C, A, E) and minerals. They have an antioxidant effect.
- Omega-3 fatty acids (alpha-linolenic, docosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic). They contribute to a decrease in the amount of lipids in the blood, relieve inflammation in the vessels, and normalize the permeability of the endothelium.
Additionally, with an increased risk of atherosclerotic plaque formation, homeopathy can be used. Popular remedies based on minerals, fungi, metals, bee or snake venom are Pulsatilla, Holvacor, Sclerosan, Cholesterolium.
The experience of doctors suggests that in case of pathological destruction of blood vessels, when the endothelium cells lose their nutritional function, it is necessary to treat hypercholesterolemia surgically. To remove cholesterol plaques, use one of three types of operations.
The most non-traumatic method is stenting, in which membrane filters and stents are inserted into an artery. This allows you to expand the lumen of the vessel, to resume normal blood circulation and prevent thrombus formation.
Shunting is also used for atherosclerotic plaques. During the operation, the patient is punctured in the neck without disrupting the integrity of the arteries. Then revascularization is carried out and the function of the arteries is restored.
Another way to remove atherosclerotic plaques is carotid endarterectomy.
In the process of surgery, the surgeon cuts the artery in the area of the narrowing and cholesterol plaques excised, and then it sews up the vessels.
Traditional methods of therapy
Improve the effectiveness of medicines will help folk remedies. However, before applying them, you should consult your doctor to make sure that a combination of certain herbs and medicines does not harm the body.
Reviews of many patients who successfully get rid of atherosclerotic plaques, say that with high cholesterol tincture of lemon and garlic helps. For its preparation you will need 4 citrus and the same amount of peeled garlic.
The ingredients are ground in a blender, placed in a glass container and filled with warm water. The drug is drawn for three days, filtered and taken up to 3 times a day, 100 ml. Complete elimination of cholesterol plaques will occur if you drink the tincture for 40 days.
Dandelion will help remove harmful cholesterol from the body. To prepare a healing infusion, the dried root of the plant is ground into powder, which is poured 100 ml of hot water.
The drug is drunk three times a day for 60 days. An important condition for treatment - the infusion should be taken 20 minutes before eating food.
To remove cholesterol plaques in the vessels of the neck, the treatment of folk remedies is to use alcohol tincture of garlic. Chopped vegetable is poured with vodka (2: 1) and left for 7 days.
Then the drug is filtered and left for another 3 days. Means drink 3 times a day, gradually increasing the number of drops from 1 to 15.
Also reduce the amount of harmful cholesterol in the blood will help infusion of licorice. For its preparation using the powder from the root of the plant (40g), which is poured boiling water (0.5 liters). Then the tool is put on 10 minutes on low heat, removed from the stove and filtered.
Infusion take 1/3 cup 4 times a day after meals. The duration of treatment is 21 days.
Even with the efficacy of medical and surgical treatment, with hypercholesterolemia and an increased risk of cholesterol plaque formation, a diet must be followed. Its main goal is the limited consumption of fatty foods of animal origin and salt.
Therefore, from the daily diet should be excluded offal, pork, duck, goose, sausages, smoked meats, red meat, lard. You also need to abandon the butter, lard semi-finished products, canned, margarine, sweets, coffee, carbonated drinks.
With a high level of LDL in the blood, it is recommended to eat fish, sea kale, legumes, egg whites and nuts, in particular almonds. In the presence of cholesterol plaques, vegetable oils are especially useful - olive, flaxseed, sesame, corn, amaranth.
Useful foods with high cholesterol are:
- fruits (avocados, apples, plums, apricots, citrus);
- mushrooms (oyster mushrooms);
- low-fat dairy products;
- vegetables (eggplants, garlic, cabbage, tomatoes, pumpkins, radishes, beets, zucchini, cucumbers, carrots);
- whole grain cereals;
- dietary meat (chicken, rabbit, turkey).
Also, doctors recommend drinking freshly squeezed juices, green or herbal tea, broth hips and mineral water without gas. Any food should be steamed, baked or boiled.
How to get rid of cholesterol plaques is described in the video in this article.