With diabetes and susceptibility to the occurrence of the disease, it is important to constantly monitor the level of sugar in the body to avoid negative consequences. However, the amount of sugar in the blood does not give a complete clinical picture. In this regard, it is advisable to carry out diagnostic activities aimed at determining the concentration of insulin. It is the ratio of sugar and insulin that can give maximum information about the risks of the development and progression of diabetes.
Insulin is a natural human hormone produced by the pancreas and is actively involved in metabolic processes. The basis of the impact on the metabolism of insulin is its ability to increase cell permeability to glucose, that is, the hormone helps reduce blood sugar levels due to its natural processing by the body.
Insulin is a vital hormone that is produced in the cells of the pancreas.
The amount of insulin in a healthy person's body varies with age:
- Up to 18 years, the normal rate ranges from 3 to 21.
- From 18 to 60 years old - 21-27.
- At the age of over 65 - up to 35.
At the same time it is advisable to measure the glucose level, which should be in the range of 3.3 to 5.7. The need for complex measurements is due to the direct dependence of the level of sugar and insulin. In some cases, there is increased insulin with normal sugar. The reasons for this phenomenon will be discussed below.
Causes of high insulin levels at normal glucose levels
- Violation of the mode of testing. As mentioned above, the cleanest results can be obtained on an empty stomach. In other cases, an elevated level of pancreatic hormone may be noted. The level of glucose decreases faster after eating food. As a result, increased insulin is observed with normal sugar.
- Prerequisites for the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanism of action is to activate the body's own forces on pathogenic processes. As a result, the pancreas begins to produce a greater amount of the hormone, so that it is able to withstand the increase in glucose levels in the future.
- Itsenko-Cushing's disease on the background of a general hormonal imbalance often provokes an increase in insulin levels in the body without a change in glucose values. There is a high probability of complications of the disease in the form of diabetes.
- The development of insulinoma, which is a benign neoplasm and actively produces a hormone. Most often, the disease is observed in violation of the functions of the liver.
- Myotonia is a neuromuscular pathology, manifested by prolonged muscle spasms, preceded by muscle contraction resulting from movement. It is rare and belongs to the category of hereditary diseases.
- Obesity, provoking a decrease in the sensitivity of cell membranes to insulin. As a result, an increased level of cholesterol is observed against the background of carbohydrate metabolism disorders.
- Pregnancy is not a pathological condition, and an increased level of the hormone indicates the body's adaptation to new conditions of functioning.
- Injecting insulin with drugs or using drugs that stimulate the activity of the human pancreas is not a pathology, except in cases of overdose with drugs.
Insulinoma is a hormone-producing tumor that often causes an increase in insulin levels in the blood.
Symptoms of elevated insulin
- Periodic bouts of hunger, occurring for no apparent reason, due to the activity of insulin in relation to the metabolism of carbohydrates. As a result, the body's energy reserves are rapidly wasted.
- Frequent bouts of tachycardia with low physical exertion or lack thereof.
- Tremor of the limbs.
- Excessive sweating.
- Periodic occurrence of conditions that can be characterized as pre-unconscious.
Symptoms of hypoglycemia as a result of elevated insulin in the blood
If you have one or more symptoms, you should consult a doctor. Information for specialists: when diagnosing an increased level of insulin against the background of blood sugar indicators within the permissible norm, it is necessary to prescribe a re-diagnosis. When confirming the results, it is first necessary to conduct a comprehensive diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and prescribe a therapeutic diet for the patient.