Diabetes mellitus - arises from the disruption of the functioning of the endocrine system. Failure occurs due to lack of insulin - a hormone secreted by the pancreas.
This disease is very common and dangerous, because its symptoms do not appear immediately. Therefore, the disease is often diagnosed at the stage of progression, when complications have already begun to develop.
But how to find out if there is diabetes at home? If it is not possible to visit a doctor and get tested, possible symptoms of the disease should be investigated. And despite the different types of the disease, they are basically similar.
What is diabetes and why does it develop?
To identify diabetes at home, you should first find out general information about the disease. There are 2 types of disease, which are united by a common symptom - an excessive concentration of glucose in the blood.
In the first case, the pathology develops with a lack of insulin in 10-15% of cases. With this type of disease, insulin therapy is always performed.
In the second type of diabetes, the hormone is produced in the required amount, but the cells become insensitive to it. In this case, insulin therapy is prescribed only in the case of a neglected form of the disease.
There is still a “hidden diabetes”, but it is quite difficult to diagnose. Potential diabetes is also identified, which significantly increases the risk of developing chronic hyperglycemia.
If there are risk factors, especially in children, possible symptoms should be considered, and it is better to undergo a full medical examination. The likelihood of developing the disease increases under these circumstances:
- excess weight;
- hyperglycemia during pregnancy;
- genetic predisposition;
- long-term use of certain drugs;
- substance abuse and alcohol abuse;
- pancreatic pathologies and endocrine disruption;
- stress and emotional strain;
- unhealthy diet;
- inactive lifestyle.
But how do you know that you have diabetes by the symptoms of the disease? In fact, at home, it is possible to determine the presence of a disease of any type, but only if it is accompanied by a pronounced clinical picture.
The intensity of manifestations is also influenced by the degree of insulin production, cell resistance to the hormone, the presence of chronic pathologies and the age of the patient.
How to identify diabetes by symptoms?
In a healthy person, after eating a meal, the sugar content in the blood rises sharply, but after two hours the blood glucose level returns to normal. And in diabetics, the glucose concentration decreases or rises very slowly, against the background of which a number of characteristic symptoms occur. These include thirst (polydipsia), when a person can drink up to 9 liters of water per day, and increased urination that does not stop even at night.
Often the patient has a constant feeling of hunger, and his skin is dry and flaky. Muscle weakness and cramps, causeless fatigue, irritability and apathy also appear.
In addition, diabetes can blurred vision, and quite often there is a digestive upset, manifested by nausea and vomiting. Even a diabetic has symptoms similar to the flu, paresthesia, numbness of the legs and itchy skin in the genitals, stomach, and extremities.
In addition, the disease can be recognized by such manifestations as:
- increased facial hair growth;
- skin infections;
- swelling of extreme rafts, occurring against the background of frequent urination;
- appearance of xanthomas on the body;
- loss of hair on the limbs.
In infants, the disease can manifest itself as a lack of weight gain, infectious diseases and diaper rash. When urine gets on diapers, their surfaces appear to be starchy.
Diabetes in a child, 3-5 years old, may be accompanied by symptoms such as lack of appetite, severe exhaustion, flatulence, problem stools and dysbiosis. In addition, a characteristic sign of chronic hyperglycemia in children is the smell of acetone from the mouth.
Determining diabetes in adolescents is much easier than in infants. At this age, the disease is manifested by increased appetite, frequent urination, weight loss, enuresis and thirst.
It is worth knowing that each type of diabetes has its own distinctive features and symptoms. So, with the first type of disease, most of the signs of the disease appear, but they may differ in the degree of manifestation. A characteristic feature of the insulin-dependent form is a sharp jump in blood sugar, which often causes fainting, which can lead to coma.
Also, with type 1 disease in 3-4 months a person can lose up to 15 kg. Moreover, the process of losing weight is accompanied by increased appetite, weakness and indisposition. Lack of treatment will lead to anorexia, and later ketoacidosis will develop, with a characteristic fruity smell from the mouth.
In addition, with type 1 diabetes, a person is rapidly losing weight, despite a good appetite. This type of disease is diagnosed up to 30 years, and it can accompany a person from birth.
And in older people, people most often develop a second type of diabetes. As a rule, in me he manifested dryness of the mucous membranes of the mouth, thirst and increased urination. In addition, the insulin-independent form of the disease is accompanied by genital itching. Often such a disease occurs on the background of hypertension, obesity and in the case of cell resistance to insulin.
However, at first, the disease is rarely manifested; therefore, a person visits a doctor only if there is a certain complication that causes unpleasant symptoms. Consequences appear on the background of the destruction of blood vessels and poor regenerative capacity of tissues.
Often this affects the visual organs and the functioning of the legs. Therefore, many patients first go to the surgeon, an oculist, and only then to the surgeon.
How to detect diabetes with tests?
If you recognize any characteristic symptoms of diabetes, then you should go to the hospital and go through all the necessary research. After all, early diagnosis of the disease will avoid the development of serious complications in the future.
The simplest and most accurate way to measure the level of sugar in the home is to use a glucometer. In the set there are test strips and a special device for piercing the finger.
Before conducting a home analysis it is important to thoroughly wash your hands and rub the skin on the surface with alcohol. This is necessary to obtain the most reliable results, because the pollution on the fingers can affect the performance.
Fasting sugar levels can range from 70 to 130 mg / dl. But after a meal, it rises to 180 mg / dl.
Another home method of detecting diabetes is test strips used for urine testing. However, they show the presence of the disease only if the sugar concentration is very high. If the level is less than 180 mg / dl, the test results may give false answers, so it is important to undergo additional laboratory testing.
Applying the complex AC1 can also reveal violations in carbohydrate metabolism and the pancreas at home. Such sets allow you to determine the level of hemoglobin A1C, they show the average concentration of sugar for 3 months. Normal hemoglobin content is up to 6%.
So, those who have the characteristic signs of beginning diabetes mellitus, who, after conducting home testing, also found hyperglycemia in themselves (above 130 mg / dl), should quickly see a doctor.
In another case, an insulin crisis may occur, which is often fatal.
How to protect yourself from developing diabetes?
To prevent the occurrence of the disease, it is necessary to completely change the lifestyle. To this end, it is necessary to constantly monitor their own state and eat right. So, you need to eat at least 5 times a day in small portions. At the same time, it is necessary to refuse fatty, fast-carb, sweet foods and carbonated drinks.
In addition, the abuse of tobacco and alcohol is prohibited. Periodically it is necessary to check the sugar content in the blood, avoid stress, and do not forget about moderate physical activity.
But if you have type 1 diabetes, then in addition to observing all the above rules, you need to have insulin therapy. In this case, the dosage and type of insulin should be chosen individually by the attending physician. But with a normal body weight and a balanced emotional state, the average dose of insulin is 0.5-1 U per 1 kg of weight.
To compensate for diabetes, you must constantly engage in sports. The benefit of physical activity is that in the process of training in the muscle tissue there is an intense oxidation of glucose. Thus, when sugar is burned in the muscles, its concentration in the blood decreases.
In the second type of diabetes, insulin therapy is performed only in advanced cases. But with this type of disease, a drug treatment is added to physical exertion and diet therapy, which consists in taking sugar reducing agents. There will be no unnecessary prevention of possible complications, but in this case, therapy is selected individually. The video in this article will tell you how to identify diabetes.