In case of a disease, diabetes mellitus must be systematically monitored, and blood sugar concentration should be measured. Normal glucose indicators are the same for men and women, have a slight difference in age.
The average fasting glucose is considered to be numbers in the range from 3.2 to 5.5 mmol / liter. When blood is drawn from a vein, the results will be slightly higher. In such cases, the rate of blood on an empty stomach will be no more than 6.1 mmol / liter. Immediately after a meal, glucose can rise to 7.8 mmol / liter.
To obtain the most accurate result, a blood test is required before the meal is taken only in the morning. Provided that a capillary blood test will show a result above 6 mmol / liter, the doctor will diagnose diabetes.
A study of capillary and venous blood may be incorrect, not consistent with the norm. This happens if the patient did not follow the rules of preparation for the analysis, or donated blood after eating. Also, the following factors lead to incorrect data: stressful situations, minor diseases, serious injuries.
Sugar indicators in old age
After the age of 50 years in the majority of people, and in women most often, it increases:
- fasting blood sugar level of about 0.055 mmol / liter;
- blood glucose 2 hours after a meal - 0.5 mmol / liter.
It is necessary to take into account that the mentioned figures are only average, for each particular person of advanced years they will vary in one direction or another. It always depends on the physical activity and the quality of nutrition of the patient.
Usually, in older women, the glucose level increases exactly 2 hours after eating, and fasting blood glucose remains within the normal range. Why it happens? This phenomenon has several causes that affect the body simultaneously. First of all, this is a decrease in the sensitivity of tissues to the hormone insulin, a decrease in its production by the pancreas. Additionally, the secretion and action of incretins weakens in these patients.
Incretins are special hormones, they are produced in the digestive tract in response to food intake. The incretins also stimulate pancreatic insulin production. With age, the sensitivity of beta cells decreases several times, this is one of the mechanisms for the development of diabetes, no less important than insulin resistance.
Due to the difficult financial condition, older people are forced to eat cheap high-calorie foods. This food is composed of:
- excessive amounts of fast-absorbing industrial fats and simple carbohydrates;
- lack of complex carbohydrates, protein, fiber.
Another reason for the increase in blood sugar in old age is the presence of chronic comorbidities, treatment with potent drugs that adversely affect carbohydrate metabolism.
The most dangerous from this point of view are considered: psychotropic drugs, steroids, thiazide diuretics, non-selective beta-blockers. They are able to provoke the development of pathologies of the heart, lungs, musculoskeletal system.
As a result, muscle mass decreases, insulin resistance increases.
Features of glycemia in the elderly
The symptomatology of diabetes in elderly women is significantly different from the classic manifestations of the disease, which are in young people. The main difference is worn out, poor severity of symptoms.
Hypoglycemia in diabetes mellitus in this category of patients is often not diagnosed, it successfully disguises as manifestations of other serious diseases.
Increased sugar is associated with insufficient production of hormones:
For this reason, there may be no bright symptoms of impaired insulin production, for example, sweating, rapid heartbeat, trembling in the body. Foreground will be:
- disturbance of consciousness.
Whatever the cause of hypoglycemia, there is a violation of the way out of this state, the counter-regulatory systems function poorly. In view of this, an increase in blood sugar is protracted.
Why is diabetes so dangerous for older women? The reason is that patients very poorly tolerate cardiovascular complications, can die from stroke, heart attack, vascular occlusion with a thrombus, and acute heart failure. There is also a risk of remaining an incompetent invalid when irreversible brain damage occurs. Such a complication may occur at a young age, but a more senior person suffers it extremely hard.
When a woman's blood sugar level rises quite often and unpredictably, it becomes a cause of falls, injuries.
Falls with hypoglycemia will often cause fractures of the limbs, dislocations of the joints, as well as damage to soft tissues.
How blood sugar test is performed
Research on blood sugar levels in elderly women is carried out on an empty stomach. This analysis is prescribed if the patient complains of:
- feeling of thirst;
- itching of the skin;
- frequent urination.
Blood sampling is carried out from a finger on a hand or a vein. When a person has non-invasive glucomenr, testing can be done simply at home, without the help of medical professionals. Such a device is quite convenient; for analysis, a woman should give a whole drop of blood. The result will be obtained a couple of seconds after the start of the measurement.
If the device shows an overestimated result, it is necessary to contact the hospital, where in laboratory conditions you can get a normal indicator of glucose.
Before the analysis of sugar for 8-10 hours, you must abandon the food. After donating blood, a woman is given 75 grams of glucose dissolved in a liquid to be drunk, and after 2 hours they are retested:
- if the result is from 7.8 to 11.1 mmol / liter, the doctor will indicate a violation of glucose tolerance;
- if the indicator is above 11.1 mmol / l, diabetes mellitus is diagnosed;
- if the result is less than 4 mmol / liter, there are indications for additional diagnostics of the organism.
Sometimes, for women over 65, a blood test for sugar will show figures from 5.5 to 6 mmol / liter, which indicates an intermediate condition called prediabetes. In order to prevent further development of the disease, it is required to follow all the rules regarding nutrition, to give up harmful habits.
If there are obvious symptoms of diabetes, a woman should donate blood several times on different days. On the eve of the study there is no need to strictly follow a diet, this will help to get reliable figures. However, before diagnosing, it is better to eliminate sweet foods.
The accuracy of analyzes is influenced by:
- stressful situations;
- the presence of chronic pathologies.
It is not recommended to do analysis for older people, if before the study they did not sleep well at night.
The older the woman, the more often she should be checked for blood sugar. This is especially important for overweight, poor heredity, heart problems - these are the main reasons that blood sugar rises.
If it is recommended to healthy people to donate blood for the level of sugar once a year, then the elderly diabetic should do this every day, and three or even five times a day. The frequency of the study depends on the type of diabetes, its severity and the age of the patient.
Despite his advanced age, a person with a first type of diabetes should conduct a blood test every time before insulin is given. When stress occurs, a change in the rhythm of life, such testing is carried out much more often.
With confirmed diabetes of the second type, the analysis is carried out:
- after waking up;
- 60 minutes after meals;
- before bedtime.
It is very good if the patient purchases a portable blood glucose meter.
Even healthy women after 45 years should be checked for diabetes at least once every 3 years, to know their rate of blood sugar. It should be remembered that fasting glucose analysis is not quite suitable for diagnosing a disease. For this reason, it is recommended that an additional test for glycated hemoglobin be tested. The video in this article continues the theme of diabetes in the elderly.