Let us try to understand why a stable level of carbohydrates in the circulatory system is so important for a person’s normal well-being, and for what reasons an imbalance of glucose occurs in the body. We will also find out which indicators of sugar level are normal, and how changes in the norm affect the body.
Sugar level and diabetes
"Blood sugar" is an everyday term for the average amount of glucose dissolved in the plasma circulating in the vessels.
In fact, a chronically elevated amount of glucose is the main manifestation of diabetes, a metabolic pathology. The disease, of course, has more complex developmental mechanisms and multifaceted symptoms, but the main indicator is “high sugar”.
Blood glucose is the amount that diabetics have to constantly monitor (measure and track indicators).
- Monitoring of carbohydrate level is one of the main components of therapy for patients with diabetes.
- The second component is insulin treatment (if indicated by doctors). Insulin is a hormone that regulates sugar levels. In diabetes, insulin in the body is either insufficient or the cells do not respond to it properly.
Metabolism of carbohydrates in the body
- Glucose enters the bloodstream from the intestines and liver (glycogen is present in the liver - a polysaccharide reserve, which is used as needed);
- The circulatory system carries glucose throughout the body - so cells and tissues are supplied with energy;
- The assimilation of glucose from the blood requires the presence of insulin, which is produced by β-cells of the pancreas;
- After eating, the sugar level rises in all people - but in healthy people this increase is insignificant and does not last long.
The body constantly regulates the concentration of glucose in the blood, maintaining homeostasis (balance). If equilibrium cannot be reached, and such failures occur regularly, endocrinologists talk about the presence of diabetes - a serious pathology of metabolic processes.
Why is it important to know your sugar level?
- Plasma glucose is the same for all ages and sexes;
- After the age of 40, check the sugar content preferably annually;
- A low-carb diet is a prophylactic method to prevent diabetes;
- Diabetes does not occur immediately - it is usually preceded by prediabetes: this condition can also be corrected with a balanced diet.
Glucose jumps and insulin treatment are the inevitable consequences of diabetes at a developed stage of the disease. While medicine can not cure diabetes completely. However, if you follow the diet, conduct regular monitoring and do not skip injections, you can avoid severe symptoms of hyperglycemia and complications caused by chronically elevated sugar levels.
Sugar imbalance: effects
Any persistent imbalance (homeostasis) in the body leads to pathology. An exception is not the level of glucose.
Hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia cause painful manifestations, which often lead to incurable complications or disability.
If sugar and insulin jumps continue regularly for several years, the pancreas will simply be exhausted. The body will produce either defective insulin, or a small amount of a hormone that cannot cope with glucose entering the body.
- Long-term use of certain drugs (corticosteroids, antidepressants);
- Adrenal dysfunction;
- Chronic stress;
- Pathology of the pituitary gland.
The main signs of hyperglycemia are thirst, frequent urination, dry skin, blurred vision, drowsiness, susceptibility to infections, poor wound healing. All these signs indicate a progressive stage of metabolic pathology. Chronically elevated sugar levels lead to the destruction of blood vessels, deterioration of the kidneys, reduced vision, neuropathy (nerve damage).
The most dangerous complications with elevated sugar levels: hyperglycemic coma, ketoacidosis (poisoning the body with carbohydrate metabolism products).
Hypoglycemia is most often caused by insufficient or improper diet, excessive loads (physical and psycho-emotional). Foods with a high glycemic index (sweets and fast carbohydrates) first dramatically increase the sugar level, but then provoke a rapid decline, which leads to pathological results.
- numbness of the limbs
- constant hunger.
The treatment of regular hypoglycemia is the proper nutrition of certain foods at short intervals.
Regulate the glycemic index is necessary for all, but especially for people with a predisposition to diabetes. The most effective method of maintaining homeostasis is to observe the diet, regulate the carbohydrate content in the menu, and regularly undergo diagnostics in the clinic.