Dryness and itching of the skin, deterioration of its regeneration are often the first symptoms that can cause diabetes mellitus. Proper skin care can solve these problems and prevent the situation from worsening in the form of infection, mycoses and even trophic ulcers. The main cause of skin problems is uncontrolled blood sugar, so a quality treatment of complications necessarily implies a good compensation for the disease.
For the health of the epidermis and dermis in diabetes mellitus, it is necessary to maintain normal water balance, get important vitamins with food, it is better to take care of the skin - pay special attention to hygiene and handling minor injuries. In situations where the skin condition causes concern, despite adequate care, you need to consult a doctor.
Why diabetic skin is prone to damage
Skin functions are not limited to protection from the external environment. It helps to keep the right amount of water in the body, remove its excess, maintain normal body temperature, synthesize vitamin D. The skin is a complex structure, it is penetrated by a network of capillaries, nerve endings, has a large number of sweat and sebaceous glands. The skin condition affects many diseases, including diabetes.
The main causes of skin damage in diabetes are often elevated sugar in the vessels. Because of the saccharification of proteins, the membranes of skin cells are weakened, and the products of disturbed metabolism, sorbitol and fructose, accumulate inside the cells, leading to a change in the osmolarity of the intracellular fluid. As a result, the skin, follicles and sweat glands cannot as effectively perform their functions as before. The skin problems are aggravated by weakened immunity of diabetics and common complications - angiopathy and neuropathy. With angiopathy, the delivery of oxygen to the skin and its nutrition worsens, toxic substances are poorly eliminated. Neuropathy deprives the skin of part of the sensitivity, because of which a growing number of minor household injuries.
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- Sugar normalization -95%
- Elimination of vein thrombosis - 70%
- Elimination of palpitations -90%
- Excessive Blood Pressure - 92%
- Increased vigor during the day, improved sleep at night -97%
The result of such an effect on the skin is its coarsening, peeling, calluses, cracks, various rashes, pigment spots, poorly healing wounds, purulent complications.
A very dangerous complication that can develop as a result of the appearance of a skin ulcer - diabetic foot.
Dermatosis in diabetes can be:
- primary - due to metabolic disorders;
- secondary - when attaching a bacterial or fungal infection, often due to improper skin care and poor treatment of minor wounds;
- caused by drugs that are used for the treatment of diabetes.
Significance of proper skin care
Compared with the skin of healthy people, diabetics are more vulnerable:
- Due to the increased urination with high sugar, the body dehydrates. For skin, dehydration turns into dryness and flaking. The skin of the hands, which is often in contact with household chemicals, can be inflamed and cracked due to excessive drying. Therefore, diabetes is a must wear rubber glovesand in the care products add a good moisturizer.
- In diabetics, avitaminosis is more pronounced. With a lack of vitamin A, keratin accumulates in the skin, it becomes rough, peels off, easily inflamed. Due to the increase in the number of free radicals in diabetes mellitus, there is a growing need for antioxidants - vitamins C and E. Therefore, in addition to proper care, patients need good nutrition and taking vitamin preparations better than specialized ones.
- In diabetes, frequent measurements of blood sugar are necessary, and in type 1, insulin injections are necessary. Constant traumatization of the skin in the same places leads to inflammation, and sometimes to lipodystrophy - local compaction or atrophy of subcutaneous fat. To avoid these effects, it is necessary to take better care of the skin: pay special attention to hygiene, treat inflammation, strictly follow the injection technique.
- In patients with diabetes, wounds heal more slowly, higher the probability of infection. If healthy people can afford not to pay attention to minor skin damage, then diabetics should handle every scratch.
- Increased demands are also made on foot care. Because of the high risk of infection to patients, traditional edged pedicure is prohibited. Remove dead skin must be very carefully. Sensations due to neuropathy may be dulled, so the process must be controlled visually. If hyperkeratosis cannot be managed on its own, it is safer for patients with diabetes to visit a non-cosmetic salon, but a diabetic foot room.
- If diabetes is not compensated for, extensive festering ulcers can appear on the legs. To prevent them, daily skin care should include inspecting the feet for damage, pick up comfortable shoes, enhance hygiene - more often change socks and wash your feet.
- Because of the risk of inflammation, diabetics should avoid beauty and mesotherapy injections. To improve the condition of the skin of the face, hardware methods that do not traumatize the epidermis are preferable.
Diabetes Skin Care Rules
The main rules of skin care - frequent cleansing, good hydration and timely antiseptic:
- the first stage is cleansing. Normal alkaline soap and gels with diabetes is undesirable to use, as they aggravate dry skin and wash off the protective lipid layer. Skin care is necessary with the help of gels with a neutral pH, such can be found in the lines of medical cosmetics and among children's products. Women for intimate hygiene fairly clean water, a couple of times a week use special gels with lactic acid, for example, Lactacid or Epigen Intim;
- after cleansing, the most dry areas of the skin (most often the hands, elbows and feet) require moisturizing. Usually enough moisturizing milk or cream from any child or hypoallergenic series, they are applied three times a day. It is better to care for extremely dry skin with severe hyperkeratosis and cracks with the help of special cosmetics for diabetics. It usually contains urea (carbamide) - a part of the natural moisturizing factor, which is located on the surface of any healthy epidermis and is able to attract and retain moisture in the skin. For small cracks, panthenol-containing products are good;
|Means||Moisturizing ingredients||Additional components||Release form|
|Diaultraderm Aqua 15||urea 15%, shea butter||Avocado oil - to restore the skin.||cream foam|
|Diaultraderm Silver||carbamide 10%, shea butter||Silver nitrate - a bactericidal agent, tea tree oil - wound healing.||cream|
|Ureata hel||urea 10%||Vitamin E is an antioxidant, blood circulation stimulant.||cream|
|DiaDerm intensive||lactic acid, carbamide 10%||Vitamins A, E, F, emollient oils of olive, avocado, jojoba.||foot cream|
|Wirth for diabetics||urea||Grape seed oil, corn, collagen, panthenol, thioctic acid, herbal extracts.||foot cream|
- To reduce the risk of infection, in addition to the antiseptic components in the composition of moisturizers, chlorhexidine, Miramistin or hydrogen peroxide are used. They are repeatedly treated all damage, including the smallest. Aseptic dressings are required for deep or wide wounds. Manganese, alcohol and alcohol solutions - iodine and brilliant green, should not be used, since they increase the dehydration of the skin.
A good condition of the skin in diabetes mellitus is possible only with stable normal blood sugar and special care. If you carefully care for your skin, drink plenty of water, apply cosmetic and therapeutic agents for diabetics, consult a doctor in time, you can significantly reduce the likelihood of skin diseases, get rid of discomfort and avoid serious complications - ulcers and gangrene.