Statistics show that pancreatic diabetes develops in 30% of patients suffering from chronic inflammation of the pancreas. The treatment of this disease is rather complicated. Chances of complete recovery are small.
What it is?
To understand what pancreatic diabetes is and how it develops, it is necessary to say a few words about the functionality of the pancreas. This organ consists of exocrine cells, which are engaged in the production of a special secretion necessary for the digestion of food. Between these cells are the islets of Langerhans, whose "duties" include the production of insulin and glucagon. They consist of endocrine cells.
Since the exocrine and endocrine cells are located very close to each other, when inflammatory processes occur in one of them, others are also affected. That is, in addition to the fact that the production of enzyme juice is disturbed, a failure occurs in the production of hormones necessary for the complete splitting of glucose and its transformation into energy. And for this reason, pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus quite often develop simultaneously.
As mentioned above, the main cause of the development of type 3 diabetes are inflammatory processes occurring in the cells of the pancreas. But not only acute or chronic pancreatitis can trigger the onset of this disease. There are other pancreatic pathologies that can lead to the emergence of pancreatogenic diabetes in humans. They are:
- pancreatic necrosis, characterized by a malfunction of the pancreas, in which it begins to digest its own cells, causing their death;
- oncological diseases of the pancreas, in which the cells of the organ are damaged, cease to function normally and gradually die off;
- injuries resulting from a stroke or surgical interventions in which the integrity of the pancreas was compromised, followed by the development of inflammatory processes;
- partial resection of the pancreas, for example, when a tumor or another disease is detected, in which the removal of a part of an organ is the only effective method of saving a person;
- cystic fibrosis, which is a hereditary disease in which the external secretion glands are affected;
- hemochromatosis, which is characterized by a violation of the metabolism of iron-containing pigments in the body, which leads to a malfunction of many organs, including the pancreas;
- pakreatopathy, characterized by hyperfunctional pancreas.
Summing up, it should be noted that the development of pancreatic diabetes mellitus in one way or another is associated with a violation of the pancreas. Therefore, in the presence of such diseases, patients are recommended to be regularly examined in clinics in order to promptly detect the occurrence of complications and begin their treatment.
It should be noted that diseases such as pancreatitis and diabetes most often develop simultaneously in people who are overweight and hyperlipidemia. And if over weight everything is clear, then with hyperlipidemia is not quite, as many do not even know what kind of disease. And it represents a condition in which harmful substances begin to accumulate in the blood, namely lipids, among which are cholesterol, fats and triglycerides.
The peculiarity of hyperlipidemia is that it develops mainly in people suffering from obesity, diabetes or cholesterol disease. It is almost asymptomatic. If any signs of hyperlipidemia appear, they tend to be sluggish in nature, and people simply do not pay their attention to them. Therefore, they learn about the presence of this problem only in the course of examination for completely different pathologies.
According to many doctors, people suffering from obesity and not taking any measures to eliminate the problem expose their bodies to high risks. Indeed, in the presence of overweight, the risks of developing chronic inflammation of the pancreas increase several times. This increases the likelihood of endocrine deficiency, which also entails the emergence of this disease.
In addition, patients with acute pancreatitis during obesity often develop hyperglycemia, which is characterized by a sharp increase in blood sugar levels. In most cases, it ends with the onset of a hyperglycemic crisis.
The occurrence of hyperglycemia is mainly associated with such phenomena:
- severe swelling of the pancreas, resulting from inflammatory processes;
- the inhibitory effect of trypsin on the synthesis of insulin, the level of which against the background of acute inflammation increases several times.
Features of the course of pancreatic diabetes
Pancreatogenic diabetes has its own characteristics of development. As a rule, people suffering from this disease have a thin physique and are choleric. In contrast to type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, patients with type 3 diabetes will normally increase their blood sugar levels. And they can feel good even in cases where the level of sugar in the blood rises to such marks as 10-11 mmol / l. With ordinary diabetes, such an increase in glucose leads to a sharp deterioration in health, and in this case no symptoms are noted.
At the same time, hereditary predisposition does not matter in the development of this disease. It can also occur in those people in whose families it has never been observed. At the same time, pancreatic diabetes mellitus does not have insulin resistance and is not characterized by an acute course. But people who suffer from it, as well as patients with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, are highly susceptible to frequent infections and skin diseases. During its course, wounds and abrasions on the body heal for a very long time and the risks of their suppuration with the subsequent development of gangrene are also present.
Pancreatic diabetes develops almost asymptomatic. The first signs of its occurrence appear only after several years of systematically repeated painful attacks in the abdomen.
Its distinguishing feature is that it has a tendency to drop sugar in the blood and less often gives complications. Moreover, unlike DM1 and DM2, it is well treatable and does not require the constant use of insulin-containing drugs. As his treatment, they use moderate exercise, diet, avoiding bad habits and taking medications belonging to the sulvonilurea and clay groups.
As mentioned above, pancreatic diabetes mellitus can develop asymptomatically over the years. And the only thing that can bother patients is periodic abdominal pain and an increase in blood sugar levels.
However, if this disease is accompanied by hyperinsulinism (this condition often occurs with chronic inflammation of pancreatic and endocrine disorders), then the general clinical picture can be complemented by the following symptoms:
- constant feeling of hunger;
- reduced muscle tone;
- bouts of cold sweat;
- excessive emotional agitation.
Hyperinsulinism in combination with pancreatic diabetes often provokes seizures and fainting. In addition, in this disease the permeability of the vascular walls is disturbed and their fragility increases, which leads to the appearance of edemas and bruises appearing on the body without a cause.
The main aspect in the treatment of pancreatic diabetes is diet. The patient needs to be more careful when choosing food. It is very important to pay special attention to the adjustment of protein-energy deficiency, as well as to prevent further weight loss, as this can lead to exhaustion.
Approximate list of permitted and prohibited products for pancreatogenic diabetes
In addition, it is required to take drugs that restore the electrolyte in the body and replenish the reserves of vitamins and minerals in order to avoid the appearance of hypovitaminosis, which affects absolutely all the internal organs and systems of a person, including the pancreas.
Equally important in the treatment of this disease is the compensation of exocrine pancreatic deficiency. For this purpose, special preparations are taken that improve the fermentation of the organ and increase its regeneration properties.
In the presence of severe pain in the abdomen, analgesics are used. It is very important that they belong to the means of non-narcotic origin. This will prevent the emergence of addiction and other health problems.
In some cases, for the treatment of pancreatic diabetes mellitus resorted to surgical interventions. Sometimes they are the only treatment for a disease. If you do not have surgery, then there are high risks of pakreatomii. If it does appear, it may be necessary to use simple insulin. It is used in the amount of not more than 30 units. And his exact dosage for the patient is calculated individually, taking into account some factors:
- the patient's blood sugar level (monitored for a week in stationary conditions or at home with a glucometer, all results are recorded in a diary);
- the quality and nature of the patient's nutrition (here, the number of meals, the energy value of food consumed, the amount of fats, carbohydrates and proteins in the diet);
- level of physical activity.
And here it is very important to use insulin preparations correctly. If the blood sugar level is in the range of 4-4.5 mmol / l, then they should not be used in any case. Since these drugs contribute to a decrease in the level of glucose and can trigger the onset of hypoglycemia or, even worse, a hypoglycemic crisis, in which a person may fall into a coma or die.
After doctors manage to normalize carbohydrate metabolism and the pancreas, the therapy is applied directly to stabilize blood sugar levels. Which drugs for this purpose will be used, only the doctor decides taking into account the factors described above.
Treatment of pancreatic diabetes mellitus does not constitute a major difficulty if the patient responds promptly to the development of the disease and seeks help from a doctor. Therefore, be attentive to your health and at the first signs of this disease (namely, abdominal pain), go to a specialist and follow all his recommendations. Only in this way can you maintain your health for many years!