Diabetes mellitus is a serious disease that is very difficult to cure. In the list of all childhood diseases of a chronic nature, he ranks second in the degree of prevalence. Pathology is dangerous because it causes many problems in children and is much more difficult than in adults.
If the very first symptoms of diabetes in children are detected, the doctor does everything so that the child can fully live and develop, without the appearance of serious consequences. Parents first need to teach the teenager how to cope with diabetes, and to help him easily adapt to the teams.
All the years, children follow a strict medical diet prescribed by a doctor, monitor blood sugar levels using a portable blood glucose meter, insulin shots every day, and do light physical exercises. Despite the full range of therapies, the diabetic should not feel inferior; therefore, the help of a psychologist is sometimes required.
Manifestations of diabetes
Symptoms of diabetes in children 9 years of age and older, as a rule, appear with particular activity and quickly increase during the week. If you have any suspicious or unusual symptoms of the disease, you should immediately seek medical help.
The doctor examines the child, prescribe tests for the presence of diabetic disease, after which the exact diagnosis will be known. Before going to a doctor, blood glucose values are measured using a special device, the blood glucose meter.
In no case can not ignore the symptoms of diabetes. If you help in time and start treatment, serious complications will not appear. As a result, the child will feel healthy, despite the presence of pathology.
Diabetes in children is manifested by the following symptoms:
- The child often feels thirsty. Such a need for liquid is explained by the fact that due to the increase in blood glucose, the body tries to dilute the accumulated sugar with liquid that it receives from the cells. Because of this, children are often asked to drink, trying to fill the need for fluids.
- Due to frequent drinking, urination is noticeably more frequent. The body is filled with a missing fluid, after which water begins to flow through the urine. For this reason, the child may often ask for the toilet. If the children's bed at night periodically becomes damp, parents should be alerted.
- The child can dramatically lose weight. With diabetes, glucose is no longer an energy source. To replenish the missing energy, the body burns fat and muscle tissue. As a result, children begin to rapidly lose weight, lose weight and can not fully develop.
- Chronic fatigue, drowsiness, lethargy due to an acute shortage of energy reserves are constantly observed. Glucose is not processed into energy, as a result of all organs and tissues there is an acute shortage of energy resources.
- Due to the fact that diabetic food is not fully digested, the child may feel a constant hunger, even if he often eats food in large quantities.
- Sometimes, on the contrary, the appetite disappears, the child does not want to eat. Such symptoms may indicate a serious complication - diabetic ketoacidosis, which is very life threatening.
- Due to the increase in blood sugar concentration, the tissues in all organs are greatly dehydrated. The same violation affects the visual organs, when the state of the lens of the eye is disturbed due to lack of fluid. The diabetic begins to faintly see, a feeling of nebula appears in his eyes. If the child is small and cannot talk, the parents will not immediately find out about the problem. Therefore, it is important to regularly visit an ophthalmologist for prevention.
Girls with diabetes often have a fungal infection of thrush. On the skin of sick babies appear serious diaper rash that causes fungi. With a decrease in blood glucose levels such violations disappear.
In a severe stage of diabetes, a child can begin a life-threatening complication - diabetic ketoacidosis. This disease is accompanied by nausea, frequent intermittent breathing, fatigue and constant lethargy, acetone vapors are felt from the mouth. When these symptoms appear, it is necessary to immediately call an ambulance, otherwise the disease can lead to loss of consciousness and death.
There are such cases that parents do not immediately pay attention to the developing signs of diabetes, as a result, the disease takes an active stage, and the child is in intensive care with diabetic ketoacidosis.
If you timely block the developing symptoms, lower the level of glucose in the blood and start the necessary treatment, you can prevent serious consequences for the child.
Why does diabetes develop?
The exact causes of the onset of diabetes mellitus of the first type have not yet been fully identified. Very often, the main role is accounted for by the presence in the child of a genetic susceptibility to the development of the disease.
Including provoke the disease can some viral and fungal infections, including influenza and rubella. Infectious diseases can give rise to metabolic disorders in the body, especially in the presence of heredity.
A child is at risk if one of the parents or relatives has diabetes mellitus of any type. To identify a genetic predisposition, a genetic analysis is performed, such testing is expensive and provides information only about the degree of risk.
Thus, the cause of diabetes in a child can be any of the following factors.
- The presence of viral and fungal infections in the body often becomes a prerequisite for the development of the disease.
- Due to the low blood levels of vitamin D, the risk of the onset of the disease increases, since this beneficial substance is responsible for the normalization of immunity.
- With the early transition of the child to cow's milk increases the risk of developing diabetes. Therefore, it is necessary in the first months of the baby's life to use breast or less dangerous goat milk. Cereal products should also not be introduced early in supplements.
- It can also be caused by malnutrition and abuse of foods with nitrates.
When overeating and eating large amounts of carbohydrate food increases the load on the pancreatic cells that produce insulin. As a result, these cells are depleted and cease to function, which provokes a sharp decrease in insulin in the blood.
In children with overweight or obesity, the risk of getting diabetes increases many times over. As a result of the receipt of excess sugar, excess glucose is not excreted from the body, but accumulates in the form of fatty deposits. Fat molecules, in turn, reduce insulin sensitivity at receptors, which increases the concentration of glucose in the body.
With an inactive lifestyle, not only does body weight increase, but the work of the cells responsible for insulin production also decreases. Therefore, the child must attend sports sections and physical education at school.
- Human insulin is a hormone that promotes the penetration of glucose from the blood into the cellular tissue, where sugar is the main energy source. Beta cells located in the region of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas help insulin. In a healthy person, after he has eaten, a sufficient amount of insulin begins to flow into the blood, which reduces the concentration of glucose in the blood.
- Further, the pancreas reduces the synthesis of the hormone so that the sugar concentration does not drop below the permissible rate. Glucose is stored in the liver and, if required, enters the bloodstream to normalize the indicators. If there is a shortage of insulin in the blood, when the child is hungry, the liver supplies the missing amount of glucose to maintain normal blood sugar levels.
Thus, sugar and insulin are mutually exchanged. But in diabetes mellitus, the beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed, due to which the right amount of hormone is not released in the child’s body.
For this reason, glucose does not penetrate in the right amount into the blood, sugar accumulates in the body and leads to diabetes.
How to prevent disease
As such, preventive ways to prevent the disease does not exist; therefore, the development of the disease cannot be completely stopped. But if a child is at risk, special attention should be paid to his health in order to prevent the occurrence of intractable complications.
Most often, diabetes is found in children when the disease develops and makes itself felt by various symptoms. To detect the disease at an early stage, it is recommended to conduct a blood test for the presence of antibodies.
If there are diabetics among the relatives, you should always follow a special low-carb diet, this will prevent the destruction of beta cells.
- Many factors are very difficult to avoid, but if the health of the child is treated carefully from a very early age, the disease can be postponed for a certain period.
- It is not necessary for children in infancy too early to convert to supplements, up to six years old, only breast milk should be used for feeding.
- In order to avoid infectious and fungal diseases, it is impossible to create a sterile environment for a child. This will have a negative impact on the health of the child, since the children's body will not be able to adapt to fungi and viruses. As a result, children are sick more often.
- Vitamin D can be included in the diet only with the permission of a pediatrician.
In the presence of diabetes mellitus, a child is prescribed a comprehensive treatment to normalize the level of glucose in the blood. Children are prescribed a strict therapeutic diet, it is also necessary to inject insulin every day.
To this end, it is recommended to purchase a convenient pen-syringe so that the teenager can independently inject the hormone into the body. Additionally, the child should engage in physical activity and keep a diabetic diary to track changes.
Diabetes mellitus refers to such diseases that require daily monitoring of the patient's health. Be sure to buy a portable blood glucose meter on hand, so that the child can measure the level of glucose in the blood at any time. The first years, parents teach a teenager to the desired mode, and in the future the necessary procedures become a certain way of life.
As a child grows up, habits and the body’s need for certain foods may change; the body undergoes hormonal changes. Therefore, it is necessary to take measurements of blood sugar every day and write them in a diary. This will allow you to track the dynamics of changes and, if necessary, change the dosage of insulin.
In addition, it is important to teach the child how to live with diabetes, so that he is not shy about his own illness. A teenager is recommended to visit websites and forums related to the disease, where he can find support and advice, as well as meet like-minded people.
About the characteristic symptoms of diabetes in children described in the video in this article.