In the conditions of the modern world, a person is subject to a huge number of diseases and pathologies, the brunt of which is borne by the endocrine system of the body. One of the most common hormonal disorders is diabetes mellitus, a precursor of which is a condition called prediabetes. Among other methods of treatment, a balanced and detailed diet with pre-diabetes is the first step towards reducing the risk of diabetes.
Characteristics of prediabetes
The pre-diabetic condition is characterized by elevated glucose and glycated hemoglobin compared to normal, but its difference from diabetes is that it is possible to stabilize a person’s condition by normalizing sugar levels. The blood test for glucose is taken strictly on an empty stomach, and the accepted food and food do not affect the study of glycated hemoglobin.
The causes of prediabetes include functional disruptions in the pancreas, as well as the pathological conditions of the cells of the body that stop responding to insulin. Risk factors for prediabetes and later diabetes include:
- genetic predisposition;
- diabetes during pregnancy;
- excess weight;
- elderly age;
- chronic liver and kidney disease;
- low blood coagulation;
- blood levels of high cholesterol.
In addition, it has been clinically proven that stress and various mental and nervous disorders can have a negative effect on blood glucose levels.
Usually, the borderline state before diabetes does not manifest overt symptoms, but under the influence of external factors, signs of disturbances in the body can begin to manifest themselves:
- constant thirst;
- frequent urination;
- reduced vision;
- fast fatiguability;
- itching of the skin and mucous membranes;
- decrease in regenerative abilities of an organism;
- situational impotence.
The pre-diabetic state is not always expressed by such symptoms, however, it is necessary to listen to the signals of the body and if negative or unusual manifestations occur, it is important to consult a doctor.
The cause of diabetes mellitus or borderline is often malnutrition. Overeating, the abuse of sweets or fast food, excessive consumption of carbonated drinks or vice versa, too long intervals between meals, unbalanced nutrition, lack of essential trace elements - all this can cause prediabetes.
The treatment of a condition of the human body, in which the indicators of the level of sugar greatly increase (up to 6.5 mm / l at a rate of 5.2 mm / l), is rarely carried out with a medication method. In most cases, endocrinologists prescribe to the patient an individually selected diet that meets all the principles of healthy eating. Only the rejection of bad habits and addictions, as well as adhering to the norms of nutritionally balanced and rich in vitamins and microelements, will help to normalize the glucose content and restore insulin production.
For use in the pre-diabetic state, depending on the presence or absence of excess weight, experts have developed 2 types of diets - under the numbers 8 and 9.
They differ in that one is aimed at stabilizing glucose indicators and normalizing insulin secretion, and the other has the same effect, but corrected for stimulation of weight loss.
The characteristics of foods eaten and controlled by the rules of these diets include:
- caloric content (should not exceed 2200 kcal / day);
- the ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates;
- vitamins of groups A, B, C;
- trace elements (potassium, calcium, sodium, iron, phosphorus);
- amount of fluid consumed;
- the amount of salt consumed.
In most cases, the cause of various endocrine disorders becomes overweight. Therefore, to normalize the body's work, it is necessary first of all to eliminate the initial cause of the pre-diabetic condition.
Control of the amount of incoming carbohydrates, as well as their composition (fast or complex) is the basis of diet therapy for getting rid of extra pounds. In addition to changes in nutrition, you need to make adjustments to your lifestyle, namely, to increase physical activity, to start playing sports.
List of banned products
The list of banned products with prediabetes is quite extensive. In addition to the diet, it is worth quitting smoking and drinking alcohol even in small quantities.
- yeast dough;
- fatty meat and mushroom broths;
- fatty meat (pork, lamb), poultry (duck, goose) and fish (in the autumn-winter period, when the river fish becomes excessively fat);
- smoked meats (sausages, wieners, sausages, cakes, bacon);
- canned food (stew, fish, vegetable caviar);
- caviar of sturgeon and salmon;
- fat (more than 2%) cottage cheese, sour cream, cream, cheese;
- homemade spins, past pasteurization;
- sugar, honey, dried fruit, jam, pastry cream;
- sweet fruits and berries (bananas, melons, strawberries);
- freshly squeezed and packaged juices;
- spicy sauces (soy, mayonnaise);
- fast food;
- animal fats (butter, lard, margarine);
- egg yolk.
List of recommended products
This list includes products with which you should build a basic diet with pre-diabetes and overweight:
- lean pastries, rye bread;
- vegetable broths, rarely broths on chicken or veal;
- meat products of the diet spectrum (rabbit, chicken, turkey);
- liver (only boiled);
- seafood and lean fish (cod, pollock, hake);
- fermented milk products, low-fat cottage cheese and sour cream;
- cereals (buckwheat, barley, oat);
- potatoes (rarely), tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplants, greens, zucchini;
- unsweetened fruit (apples, quince) fresh or baked;
- homemade fruit compotes from fresh berries;
- herbal teas, tea, cocoa, vegetable juices;
- vegetable oil;
- natural spices (cinnamon, garlic, coriander);
- egg white.
General rules of nutrition
It is important to remember that when preparing dishes from the list of allowed foods in diets 8 and 9, you must carefully consider the amount of vitamins, microelements and calories for each individual dish and adhere to the recommended daily allowance to achieve the desired effect.
All products can be cooked, stewed in water or steamed, baked in the oven. The recommended menu is quite diverse and, if desired, it is possible to attract imagination and not notice the serious differences between the table of a diabetic and a healthy person.
In addition to respecting the boundaries in the choice of products, you should follow simple rules:
- It is important to maintain the required volume of fluid in the body (1.5 liters per day);
- complete refusal of sugar-containing sweets, give preference to sugar substitutes;
- should eat more often, but in small (250 g) portions to normalize the activity of the pancreas;
- It is desirable to abandon this method of heat treatment of products, like frying in oil, but as an exception, you can sometimes use fried dishes cooked with a minimum amount of oil (preferably olive);
- desirable rejection of fast carbohydrates in favor of complex (they are a gradual increase in blood sugar levels, and not spasmodic);
- salt intake is significantly reduced (3-5 gr);
- fiber consumption has a positive effect in the fight against obesity (in the processing of fiber, the body receives less energy than it spends on its digestion).
Below are several options for the daily diet using products from the recommended list. They can be used in the preparation of the menu for the week when following the rules of the diet number 8 or number 9.
Option number 1
|Breakfast||Oatmeal + Tea|
|Dinner||Vegetable puree + boiled fish|
|Dinner||A glass of kefir|
Option number 2
|Breakfast||Cocoa + Diabetic Cookies|
|Snack||Low-fat cottage cheese with fruit|
|Dinner||Vegetable broth + black bread + steamed chicken cutlet|
Option number 3
|Breakfast||Tea + bread + boiled chicken breast|
|Snack||Pumpkin puree soup|
|Dinner||Steamed vegetables + braised rabbit|
|Dinner||Sea kale + boiled chicken|
When overweight, it is important to carefully ensure that the total caloric content of meals does not exceed the daily allowable rate.
Diet therapy in pre-diabetes state plays a significant role in recovery. Its balance and saturation guarantees the security of the body with substances necessary for normal life. Such a diet is based on the principles of proper lifestyle and is used even by healthy people in order to prevent endocrine diseases.