Diabetes complications

First aid for diabetic patients with bouts of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia

Attacks at a diabetes mellitus belong to rather frequent phenomena.

Sudden fluctuations in blood sugar levels can happen anytime, and the patient needs to be ready for them.

Such readiness at times can not only alleviate the condition of the patient, but also save life.

Attack with hypoglycemia

How to recognize?

This condition is characterized by an indicator of sugar level below normal. Namely, below three to five mmol. However, you need to be alert even when the figure drops to 2.2 mmol. It must be said that hypoglycemia may manifest itself in different ways, but there are common signs.

Recognize the approximation of complications by the following symptoms:

  • Early are considered nausea, rapid heartbeat. As a rule, such states can be considered the first bells;
  • since the nervous and endocrine systems suffer from a decrease in the level of sugar, the patient begins to experience severe hunger. And even in the case when food was recently taken. In parallel with this, the skin becomes paler, perspiration is actively released, a feeling of anxiety appears. Often manifested irritability at the slightest pretext;
  • at any time of day the patient may begin to tremble. Less often this happens at night, but even then such a manifestation of hypoglycemia should not be ruled out. Diabetic tremor is quite strong and uncontrollable. The patient has so much shaking limbs that he cannot even hold light objects like tableware;
  • the person begins to experience disorientation in space. Can't even concentrate on doing simple actions. As a result, behavior can often be called inadequate.
  • the patient begins to suffer frequent headaches, and quite strong. They may be accompanied by dizziness, fainting;
  • Since the sensitivity of the sense organs also decreases with a decrease in blood sugar levels, loss of visual acuity during an attack of diabetes is not uncommon. A person may begin to distinguish worse parts that have recently seen without problems. Sometimes this is accompanied by a speech disorder, as lips and tongue begin to go numb.

How to help?

What to do when an attack of diabetes mellitus during hypoglycemia:

  • First of all, you need to call an ambulance. Even if the symptoms do not seem critical. Delay can lead to hypoglycemic coma;
  • but while the ambulance is on the way, it is important to promptly increase the level of glucose in the blood. This can be done by taking sugar in pure form or juice with a high percentage of its content. It makes no sense to give food - during an attack it is sometimes not possible to chew it;
  • if there is a glucagon, you need to enter it intramuscularly. An emergency kit with this hormone can be easily found in a pharmacy;
  • you need to help the patient to take a recumbent position in the event that vomiting begins. If it has begun, it is necessary to help the victim to clean the mouth of vomitus;
  • preferably, as with epilepsy, insert a stick into your mouth. The onset of diabetes mellitus also sometimes manifests itself in the form of severe seizures. And in this case it is important to ensure that the victim does not bite through his tongue.
It is important to respond to the symptoms of a diabetic attack as soon as possible - in these situations it takes minutes.


The best way to cope with hypoglycemia is to prevent diabetes attacks:

  • most often the attack begins to manifest itself as a result of an overdose of drugs. An impulse may be the excess dosage of insulin or tablets to reduce the blood glucose level. Improper administration of drugs can also cause problems;
  • It is important to properly store medicines. Therefore, to ignore the instructions for use of drugs should not be in any case;
  • intense exercise completely drains glucose in the body. Including even those glycogen stores that are stored in the liver. In order not to get an attack with diabetes, it is better to reduce the number of loads;
  • provoke an attack can also renal and hepatic failure. Care must also be given to those who suffer from acute infectious diseases;
  • excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages may well cause an attack. Just like trying to stick to the wrong diet. In particular, starvation can cause enormous harm.
It is recommended to read the instructions before taking the drugs - doctors may be mistaken with the dosage.

Attack with hyperglycemia

How to recognize?

Hyperglycemia is excessive blood sugar. If its level sharply becomes above the mark of 5.5 mmol, one should be alert.

An attack of diabetes of this type can be recognized by the following features:

  • dry mouth - always appears, as well as dry skin. In this case, the victim is very thirsty, but can not get drunk. The fact is that along with the urine from the body of the patient begin to leave useful salts;
  • simultaneously with dryness, a person experiences weakness, severe headaches. From the mouth, the smell of acetone can begin to be felt. At a time when the sugar level reaches 10-15 mmol, emetic urges appear:
  • the patient begins to feel more urge to urinate, itching, problems with the gastrointestinal tract. In parallel, in the abdomen may appear severe dull pain. Often they subside, but then resume with greater intensity;
  • The clarity of view decreases greatly. Its vagueness indicates that the body is experiencing severe intoxication.
It is recommended not to ignore even the weak manifestations of these symptoms, otherwise they will only intensify.

How to help?

As soon as suspicious symptoms begin to appear, it is important to respond in time in the following ways:

  • if the sugar content exceeds 14 mmol, short-type insulin should be promptly injected. However, it is not necessary to proceed from the principle "the more the better." The next injection will be required no earlier than two or three hours after the first one;
  • the body needs to be sated also with proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins. They help restore the acid-base balance in the body. Mineral water and soda solution also help; they are wonderful home remedies for diabetes;
  • if the person does not get better, it is necessary to call the ambulance crew. It is advisable not to delay this step, hoping for improvement.


Prevention of hyperglycemia attacks can make diabetic life much easier, for this you should follow the following rules:

  • drink as much water as possible. It is desirable alkaline - it copes well with the task of normalizing the acid-base balance of the body;
  • It is important to monitor nutrition. Alcohol, fresh pastries and products containing fast carbohydrates should be completely excluded from the diet;
  • physical activity must always be present in the life of a diabetic. Daily gymnastics and frequent walks can significantly reduce the risk of seizures. However, it is important to remember that the load on the body should be moderate.
It is recommended as a preventive measure to measure the level of sugar on an empty stomach, and after eating.

Related videos

Action Plan for an attack of hypoglycemia:

Experts say that diabetes is not so dangerous in itself, as it can harm attacks. The most important thing when approaching them is not to panic. Timely struggle with symptoms and their prevention can significantly alleviate the condition of the patient.

Watch the video: What is hypoglycemia? - DiaBiteSize (December 2019).