If your close relatives, and most often parents, have chronic disorders in glucose uptake (SD), then the question arises: “Is inherited diabetes mellitus?”
For a detailed answer, it is worth considering all the factors that trigger the disease, including heredity.
Is diabetes mellitus inherited?
According to data published in the International Journal of Endocrinology in 2017, there are several causes of diabetes:
- age after 45 years;
- gestational diabetes;
- increased triglycerides;
- low activity;
- chronic stress;
- lack of sleep;
- polycystic ovary syndrome;
- circadian rhythm disorders;
- genetic inheritance.
According to scientists, leading endocrinologists, close relatives of patients with diabetes have a risk of developing diabetes 3 times higher than everyone else. International studies have been conducted in this area.
The result of research confirmed the following assumptions of scientists:
- monozygous twins inherited diabetes in 5.1% of cases;
- in the development of the disease is not one gene to blame, surrendering to the parents, but several;
- the risk of developing diabetes increases with a certain lifestyle (sedentary, unhealthy diet, bad habits);
- diabetes is often triggered by gene mutations that cannot be associated with heredity;
- the behavioral factor of the subjects, their resistance to stress played a large role in the inheritance of diabetes. The less a person is prone to fear, nervousness, the less the risk of disease.
Thus, to say that diabetes is inherited with a 100% probability is impossible. It can be argued only about the inheritance of predisposition. That is, genes are transmitted from relatives, affecting the increase in the percentage of the risk of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Heredity and risk
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed in childhood. The disease is characterized by depletion of the pancreas, decreased insulin production. It is necessary to conduct daily insulin therapy.
The following factors and risks contribute to the emergence of type 1 diabetes:
- heredity. The risk of developing the disease increases by up to 30% if close relatives are diagnosed with diabetes;
- obesity. Initial degrees of obesity provoke diabetes less often, grade 4 increases the risk of developing type 1 diabetes by 30–40%;
- pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis in disrepair affects pancreatic tissue. Processes are irreversible. Lead to type 1 diabetes in 80-90% of cases;
- endocrine diseases. Slow and insufficient insulin production associated with diseases of the thyroid gland provokes diabetes in 90% of cases;
- heart diseases. The risk of type 1 diabetes in cores is high. This is due to a passive lifestyle, lack of diet;
- ecology. The lack of clean air and water weakens the body. Weak immunity does not resist the course of the disease, viruses;
- place of residence. Residents of Sweden, Finland suffer from type 1 diabetes more often, all the rest of the population of the Earth.
- other reasons: late childbirth, anemia, multiple sclerosis, stress, vaccinations in childhood.
The inheritance factors of type 1 diabetes include the transmission from the older generation to the younger antibodies (autoantibodies) that fight the cells of the carrier. These include:
- antibodies to islet beta cells;
- IAA - antiinsulin antibodies;
- GAD - antibodies to glutamate decarboxylase.
The last gene plays the most important role in the development of type 1 diabetes in children. The presence of one of the group of antibodies in the body of the newborn does not mean that the disease will definitely develop. It is necessary to take into account additional external factors of life, the development of the baby.
2 types of diabetes
Diabetics with type 2 disease do not require the introduction of additional insulin. The hormone is produced, the amount of it is normal, but the cells of the body do not perceive it fully, lose sensitivity.
Medicines that reduce the insulin resistance of the tissues are used for the treatment. The risk factors for the onset of type 2 diabetes can be divided into 2 types: modifiable and non-modifiable.
Modifiable (controllable by humans):
- insufficient drinking;
- lack of physical activity;
- unhealthy diet;
- gestational diabetes;
- heart disease;
- overweight in pregnant women;
- autoimmune pathologies;
- malfunctions of the thyroid gland.
Non-modifiable (they cannot be changed):
- heredity. The child adopts a predisposition from the parents to develop the disease;
According to statistics, parents who do not have diabetes may be born a sick child with type 1 diabetes. The newborn inherits the disease from relatives through one or 2 generations.
The male line of diabetes is transmitted more frequently, and the female line is 25% less common. A husband and wife, both with diabetes, give birth to a sick child with a probability of 21%. In the event that 1 parent is ill - with a probability of 1%.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease. Characterized by the participation of several genes in the pathogenesis (MODY and others). Reduced β-cell activity leads to impaired carbohydrate metabolism, the development of type 2 diabetes.
Mutations in the insulin receptor gene are among the most common causes of diabetes in older people. Changes in the receptor affect the decrease in the rate of insulin biosynthesis, intracellular transport, lead to defects in insulin binding, degradation of the receptor that produces this hormone.
Incidence in children
Children most commonly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. It is called insulin-dependent. The child needs insulin injections daily. His body is unable to produce the required amount of hormone to process glucose, which provides the body with energy.
The development of the disease in children is provoked by the following factors:
- predisposition. It is inherited from close relatives, even after several generations. In the diagnosis of diabetes in children, the number of all ill relatives, even those who are not very close, is taken into account;
- increased glucose in women during pregnancy. In this case, glucose passes through the placenta freely. The child suffers from its excess. It is born with a disease or a high risk of its development in the coming months;
- passive lifestyle. Blood sugar level without body movement does not decrease;
- excessive consumption of sweets. Candy, chocolate in large quantities provoke disruptions of the pancreas. The production of insulin hormone decreases;
- other reasons: frequent viral infections, excessive use of immunostimulating drugs, allergies.
Ways of developing the disease
The pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus depends on the type and age of the patient.
Type 1 DM develops according to the following scenario:
- the presence of mutational genes in humans. They can trigger the disease;
- impetus to the development of diabetes (infections, stress, etc.);
- gradual decrease in the amount of insulin in the body. Absence of symptoms for 1-3 years;
- development of tolerant diabetes;
- appearance of the first symptoms of the disease: fatigue, malaise, dry mouth;
- rapid development of the disease. Weight loss, frequent urination, loss of consciousness, in the absence of treatment - diabetic coma;
- cessation of insulin production;
- correction of insulin levels with the introduction of insulin.
Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes:
- slow development of the disease on the background of provoking factors;
- the appearance of the first symptoms (thirst, increased sugar, weight loss);
- correction of sugar level due to nutrition and sugar lowering medications.
Prevention of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 includes a number of activities aimed at improving the quality of human life.
Parents of children with a predisposition to type 1 diabetes need to prevent diabetes from birth. Here are some recommendations:
- breastfeeding up to 1 year and longer;
- adherence to the vaccination schedule;
- healthy lifestyle;
- provision of proper nutrition;
- exclusion of stress;
- body weight control;
- regular medical examinations, glucose monitoring.
Prevention of having a baby with type 1 diabetes should be performed by a pregnant woman. It is necessary to avoid overeating, stress. The birth of a child with overweight should be considered as a signal to the possibility of the development of type 1 diabetes.
The main measures for the prevention of type 2 diabetes include:
- normalization of food;
- reducing the amount of sugar in food, fat;
- the use of large amounts of fluid;
- physical activity;
- weight loss;
- normalization of sleep;
- lack of stress;
- treatment of hypertension;
- refusal of cigarettes;
- timely examination, blood test for sugar level.
About the possibilities of transmission of diabetes by inheritance in the video:
Diabetes mellitus is a disease that is not inherited with 100% probability. Genes contribute to the development of the disease with a combination of several factors. The single action of genes, mutations is not decisive. Their presence indicates only a risk factor.