Blood pressure and hypertension
The heart, working like a pump, pumps blood, feeding it to all human organs. At the moment when the heart contracts, blood flows into the blood vessels, causing a pressure called upper, and at the time of unclenching or relaxation of the heart, less pressure acts on the blood vessels, called lower.
The normal arterial pressure of a healthy person (measured in mm Hg) is considered to be in the range from 100/70 to 130/80, where the first digit is the upper pressure and the second is the lower pressure value.
A mild form of hypertension is characterized by an increase in pressure above 160/100, medium - from 160/100 to 180/110, in severe form it can rise above 210/120.
Types of tonometers
- Manual pressure measurement;
Regardless of the model, an obligatory element of any tonometer is a cuff, worn on the arm between the elbow and the shoulder.
The set for manual measurement of pressure includes a cuff connected to a pear with a tube, with which air is pumped, a manometer used to display pressure level readings and a phonendoscope to listen to your heartbeat.
Semi-automatic tonometers differ from the first type of measuring part - they have a display, the screen of which displays the values of upper and lower blood pressure.
In automatic pressure gauges there is only a cuff and display, without a pear.
- To measure the arterial pressure, a cuff is put on the arm with a hand-held tonometer, and a phonendoscope head is applied to the area of the ulnar cavity. With the help of a pear, air is pumped into the cuff, at the moment of air descent it is important to carefully listen to heartbeats and when the first two or three beats appear, it is necessary to remember the value on the dial of the manometer. This will be the top pressure. As the air descends, the blows will become clearer until they disappear, the end of the blows and will indicate the value of the lower pressure.
- The measurement technique with the help of semi-automatic tonometers is different in that there is no need to listen to the heartbeat, the display will automatically show the values of upper and lower pressure at the right moment.
- When measuring blood pressure with an automatic tonometer, you only need to put a cuff on your arm and turn on the button, the system will pump air in and show the pressure values.
To accurately set the blood pressure value, a single measurement is not enough. Often, the first measurement shows a falsely overestimated result due to compression of the vessels with a cuff.
An incorrect measurement result can also be the result of an instrument error. In this case, it is necessary to carry out another 2-3 measurements, and if they are similar in result, then the figure will mean the real value of pressure. If the numbers after the 2nd and 3rd measurements differ, then several more measurements should be carried out until a value approximately equal to the previous measurements is established.
Consider the table
|Case number 1||Case number 2|
|1. 152/93||1. 156/95|
|2. 137/83||2. 138/88|
|3. 135/85||3. 134/80|
In the first case, the pressure was measured 3 times. Taking the average of 3 measurements, we get a pressure of 136/84. In the second case, when measuring pressure 5 times, the values of the 4th and 5th measurements are almost equal and do not exceed 130/77 mm Hg. An example clearly shows the importance of multiple measurements, more accurately indicating the magnitude of the actual blood pressure.