If a person has diabetes, the disease changes the course of all processes in his body. Since diabetics are deficient in calcium and vitamin D due to a lack of insulin, bone tissue also undergoes pathological changes.
Especially this problem is expressed in insulin-dependent diabetes. Symptoms of osteoporosis in this case begins very early, the amount of bone tissue changes noticeably.
Doctors say that about half of diabetics suffer from osteoporosis, if you do not take treatment, the patient will remain disabled for life.
Causes of Osteoporosis in Diabetes
In diabetes, secondary osteoporosis develops, that is, it is a complication of the underlying disease. With hyperglycemia and lack of insulin, the rate of bone mineralization decreases, the protein is produced less and less, which has a detrimental effect on bone formation.
In addition, diabetes causes an imbalance between osteoblasts (cells that form bone tissue) and osteoclasts (cells that destroy bone). One osteoblast can destroy as much bone as a hundred osteoclasts produce at once.
The destruction of bone tissue is much faster than its production. This pathological process seriously complicates therapy.
Insulin resistance and hyperglycemia cause excessive brittleness and fragility of bones, and additional risk factors should be noted:
- genetic predisposition;
- female sex (men get sick less often);
- frequent failures of the menstrual cycle;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- short stature
Also negative habits, long-term treatment with heparin, corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, consumption of high dosages of caffeine, lack of vitamin D, calcium, have a negative effect on bone tissue.
What are the danger symptoms
Osteoporosis in diabetes is dangerous for the reason that diseases aggravate each other. Insulin deficiency of the hormone becomes a prerequisite for the progression of bone tissue destruction, the likelihood of fractures increases in such diabetics, especially hip fractures occur frequently. It is extremely difficult to treat such injuries, the bones are very fragile, they grow poorly.
Diabetics are more likely than others to fall and get a fracture, the probability of falling by several times increases due to hypoglycemia, when blood sugar levels drop rapidly. Signs of this condition are characterized by clouding of consciousness. Doctors believe that with diabetes there are very few chances that it will be possible to avoid a bone fracture during a fall.
Other causes that increase the risk of osteoporosis and diabetes are:
- signs of blurring and loss of vision (caused by retinopathy);
- drops in blood pressure, the risk of hypotension;
- the development of diabetic foot;
- innervation associated with neuropathy.
If a diabetic often has jumps in blood pressure, he loses control over what is happening.
Symptoms of osteoporosis at an early stage may be minimal, it is often masked by the manifestations of osteoarthritis or osteochondrosis. At the beginning of the pathological process, the patient will note the changes:
- soreness in the joints, muscles;
- cramps at night;
- excessive fragility of teeth, hair, nails;
- backache with sitting or standing work.
As is known, these manifestations of osteoporosis in diabetes mellitus are irreversible, if the disease progresses, symptoms increase, bone fragility increases.
Nutrition for bone strength
A balanced diet for any type of diabetes mellitus always contributes to increasing the strength of bones, reducing the likelihood of their fracture. It is necessary to carefully select products, pay attention to foods rich in vitamin D. Mineral is necessary to strengthen the immune system, the hematopoietic system, calcium metabolism.
The role of calcium is difficult to overestimate, it not only contributes to the growth of bone tissue, but is also responsible for the level of pressure, nerve impulses, secretion of hormones, metabolism, vascular tone maintenance, relaxation and muscle contraction. It often happens that calcium deficiency and diabetes mellitus are two comorbidities.
The combination of calcium with vitamin D works as an oncoprotector, protects the body's cells from being transformed into cancer cells. If a person has diabetes, it is especially necessary for him.
A diet aimed at combating osteoporosis must be enriched with minerals, protein. It is shown to minimize the consumption of caffeine, as it washes out calcium. The menu should be present:
- milk products;
- sea fish;
- fresh vegetables.
Since diabetics should not consume fatty foods, fish need to choose lean varieties, and dairy products with a reduced percentage of fat. Dr. Rozhinsky recommends including kefir in the diet.
In case of diabetes, it is necessary to be especially attentive to yourself, it is important to eradicate some habits, start introducing new rules.
If there is an increased risk of hypoglycemia in diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis, there should be no cords, wires (a rug can be laid on top) in the aisles of the diabetic home, furniture should be placed safely and spilled fluids should be wiped dry.
All carpets in the house must have a non-slip base, the floor is never covered with mastic, wax and other substances. Switches recommended to place next to the bed, well, if the room has additional lights. All things are best left in accessible places.
Excessive physical exertion should be avoided, use the ladder carefully, do not get up too quickly from the table after eating, in a horizontal position. You can not arbitrarily stop treatment, skip meals, change the dosage of drugs.
A good habit is to always keep a mobile phone with you, so that in case of urgent need you can call for help.
How to avoid osteoporosis, experts will tell in the video in this article.