Hyperglycemia - a condition in which the level of glucose in the blood plasma exceeds the normal value. In order to avoid health problems, the high blood sugar is dangerous, you need to know.
A modern person is accustomed to eating many foods that are rich in sugar every day, much more than what the body actually needs.
Constantly exceeding the permissible level is dangerous for the disruption of the normal functioning of the organs, which can further lead to serious diseases, such as diabetes of the first or second degree.
Glucose metabolism in the body
To understand the causes of the disease, it is necessary in general to present the processes occurring in the body. Glucose is formed from sugar consumed by humans. Carbohydrates under the action of digestive enzymes are split into small molecules. Finally, glucose forms in the intestine, which spreads through the bloodstream throughout the body.
Its value is difficult to overestimate - it is the "blood sugar" that gives energy for the normal functioning of cells, tissues and organs. After each meal, an increase in blood sugar is observed. But such a state is always short-lived and very quickly returns to normal.
However, another situation is possible. If such jumps in the level of sugar are observed frequently and continue for a long time, pathological changes will inevitably occur in the body.
To break down glucose, the hormone insulin, which is produced in the pancreas, is needed. The higher the blood sugar level, the more insulin is needed, the stronger the load on the pancreas. As a result, it is damaged and can not produce insulin in sufficient quantity and the required quality. Because of this, diabetes mellitus type I develops.
The mechanism of development of the most common type of diabetes (type II) is different.
In this case, the pancreas secretes insulin in sufficient quantity, but for various reasons, the sensitivity of beta cells to it is much lower.
The reasons for the increase in sugar
Research has established a whole range of causes of hyperglycemia.
The most obvious causes of hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) are only two - dysfunction of the pancreas, poor lifestyle.
One of the most common risk factors for developing a disease is the use of large quantities of sweet soda, fast food, and so-called "simple" carbohydrates.
In addition, factors for the development of the disease are:
- stress can cause high sugar levels. The fact is that the effect of stress hormones is the opposite of insulin, so his work is blocked;
- lack of vitamins;
- lack of physical activity;
- excess weight;
- a dramatic change in body weight;
- administering insulin in an improperly calculated dosage;
- elderly age;
- genetic predisposition;
- taking certain groups of hormone-based drugs.
But in some situations, a high level of sugar can be considered the norm. For example, immediately after a meal, when glucose enters the bloodstream. Hyperglycemia is often observed after playing sports. Severe pain, burns, as well as some painful conditions (epilepsy, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction) can also slightly increase the level of sugar. But usually this effect is short-lived.
As for children, increased blood sugar is observed primarily in situations where the child is often overfed, especially sweets. Hyperglycemia is often the result of infection, long-term medication and low immunity. In young children, sugar often rises with the start of feeding, when cereal dishes and dairy products are introduced into the diet.
It is said that hyperglycemia is hereditary. Therefore, if there are people with diabetes in the family, this disease can also manifest in children.
In this case, the twins usually "together" suffer from manifestations of hyperglycemia.
What is dangerous hyperglycemia?
Knowing the causes of hyperglycemia, it is easy to guess what is harmful sugar in the blood and what is dangerous to human health. First of all, if hyperglycemia recurs frequently, the risk is high that the disease will begin to progress.
First of all, the work of some organs, including the pancreas, may suffer. And this, in turn, is the risk of developing diabetes.
A very dangerous blood sugar level is 17 or 18 mmol / l and more. The higher the sugar level, the greater the likelihood of serious consequences. This indicator is already considered a significant complication. With an increase in glucose concentration to this level, such serious conditions as fainting, ketoacidosis, and impaired heart function are possible.
With a significant increase in sugar there is a risk of the onset of coma - a condition that is critically dangerous to life.
The most common ketoacid coma, in which the sharply increased blood levels of ketone bodies. Due to the decrease in the level of the hormone insulin, glucose does not split, respectively, a sufficient amount of energy does not enter the cells. To fill the shortage, proteins and fats begin to be processed, and their decay products have a harmful effect on the brain.
Hypermolar coma is possible only if the sugar level reaches a critical limit of 50 mmol / l, which is quite rare. This condition is caused by rapid loss of body fluids. As a result, the blood thickens, disrupts the work of the organs and the nervous system.
Lacticidemiciotic coma occurs at an even higher level of glucose, and therefore it is even less common than hypersmolar. It occurs due to a significant increase in the content of lactic acid in the blood and tissues. Since lactic acid is toxic, impaired consciousness, paresis, or vascular dysfunction can develop with a sharp increase in concentration.
Finally, an increased amount of sugar is harmful because it "helps" cancer cells to develop. Like healthy, the affected tissues also need energy. High sugar levels stimulate the production of IGF and insulin, which contribute to the absorption of glucose.
Therefore, pathologically changed tissues with a high sugar content develop faster and more quickly affect healthy ones.
Normal sugar level
Blood sugar is one of the indicators of human health. In order to determine whether there are alarming symptoms, it is necessary to undergo a full examination, including tests. So the complete blood count sugar is taken from the finger and from the vein. On the day of the procedure is prohibited to eat and drink water. If possible, avoid physical exertion, stress, as they may affect the final result.
The normal level of sugar is the same for women and men, but it varies somewhat depending on where the blood was taken from:
- From a finger - from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol / liter.
- From a vein - 4-6 mmol / liter.
Other indicators can be considered normal, as the sugar content varies throughout the day. So, if the blood is tested for after-meal, then the rate of 7.8 mmol / l will be normal.
The indicator of 5.5 mmol / l indicates that sugar is normal and there is no need to worry. But if the indicator is higher - up to 6.5 mmol / l, impaired glucose tolerance develops. With this state of the body, diabetes is not yet developing, although there is already a direct threat to health. In this case, it is already necessary to take measures to prevent the development of the disease.
An indicator of 6.5 or more already indicates that diabetes mellitus is likely to have already developed.
Also considered normal is a slight increase in sugar levels during pregnancy. During this period, the metabolism changes greatly to provide the child with the necessary nutrition and development. Therefore, 3.8-5.8 mmol / l is quite a normal indicator. Increasing the level of glucose to 6.0 mmol / l already suggests that it is worth paying more attention to health.
Those who plan to be tested with children should check the sugar level and they have an excellent prevention of diabetes in children and parents. For children, normal rates are lower than for adults. For example, in a child less than one year old, the sugar level should not be lower than 2.2 mmol / l and above 4.4 mmol / l. In the future, this figure will increase: from 1 year to 5 years, a rate of 3.3–5 mmol / l is considered normal.
In the video in this article several recommendations are given on how to lower blood sugar.